You are here:

A Study of Internet Situations with Smileys

, Teachers College Columbia Unviersity, United States

EdMedia + Innovate Learning, in Denver, Colorado, USA ISBN 978-1-880094-45-7 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Waynesville, NC


Netspeak (Crystal, 2001) - the language of Internet communications - may be considered a hybrid of spoken and written languages. "Smileys" are part of the emerging Netspeak. Given that literacy practices are necessarily embedded in contexts, online literacy practices should also differ, depending on the given Internet contexts or Internet situations (Crystal, 2001). The current paper aims to validate the conceptualization of "Internet situations" through a case study of smiley usage. A second goal of the study is to refute Crystal's lumping of both asynchronous discussion board and synchronous chat as one type of Net situation. The current study involves 100 instant messages, 100 emails, and 100 discussion board postings from the same subject. Comparisons were made of the frequencies of smiley appearances in each medium. Findings indicate that "time" and "personal" dimensions might be useful parameters for description of Internet situations.


Chang, Y. (2002). A Study of Internet Situations with Smileys. In P. Barker & S. Rebelsky (Eds.), Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2002--World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications (pp. 279-280). Denver, Colorado, USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved December 13, 2019 from .