You are here:

Individualizing Instruction in a Web-Based Hypermedia Learning Environment: Nonlinearity, Advance Organizers, and Self-Regulated Learners

, Saginaw Valley Sate University

Journal of Interactive Learning Research Volume 11, Number 2, ISSN 1093-023X Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Waynesville, NC


This study attempted to determine what combination of nonlin-earity
and advance organizers worked best for learners with giv-en
levels of self-regulation. While the results of the study
showed no significant main effects or interactions, there were
two near significant interactions: between nonlinearity and self-regulated
learning (p = 0.054), and between nonlinearity and ad-vance
organizers (p = 0.052). These results strongly suggest that
highly self-regulating learners learn poorly in mostly linear web-based
hypermedia learning environments, where they have very
few choices, while medium self-regulating learners learn poorly
in highly nonlinear environments where they are given too many
choices. The results also strongly suggest that advance organiz-ers
are more effective in highly nonlinear web-based hypermedia
learning environments than in mostly linear environments. While
not conclusive, the results of this study support further research.


Mcmanus, T.F. (2000). Individualizing Instruction in a Web-Based Hypermedia Learning Environment: Nonlinearity, Advance Organizers, and Self-Regulated Learners. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 11(2), 219-251. Charlottesville, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved February 20, 2019 from .


View References & Citations Map


  1. Alexander, P.A., Kulikowich, J.M., & Jetton, T.L. (1994). The role of subjectma t ter knowledge and interest in the processing of linear and nonlinear texts. Review of Educational Research, 64(2), 201-252..
  2. Arnone, M.P., Grabowski, B.L., & Rynd, C.P. (1994). Curiosity as a personality
  3. Ausubel, D.P. (1960). The use of advance organizer in the learning and retention of meaningful verbal material. Journal of Educational Psychology, 51, 267-272.
  4. Ausubel, D.P. (1968). Educational psychology: A cognitive view. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
  5. Ausubel, D.P. (1978). In defense of advance organizers: A reply to critics. Review of Educational Research, 48, 251-257.
  6. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  7. Cronbach, L. & Snow, R. (1977). Aptitudes and instuctional methods: A handbook for research on interactions. New York: Irvington.
  8. Dillon, A. (1991). Readers ’ models of text structure: The case of academic articles. International Journal Of Man-Machine Studies, 35, 913-925.
  9. Egan, D.E., Remde, J.R., Landauer, T.K., & Gomez, L.M. (1989). Acquiring information in books and SuperBooks. Machine-Mediated Learning, 3, 259-277.
  10. Frau, E., Midoro, V., & Pedemonte, G. M. (1991). Do hypermedia really enhance learning? A case study on earthquake education. Educational Technology And Instruction, 29, 42-51.
  11. Garcia, T., & Pintrich, P.R. (1994). Regulating motivation and cognition in the classroom: The role of self-schemas and self-regulatory strategies. In D.H.
  12. Garcia, T., Matula, J.S., Harris, C.L., Dowdy, K.E., Lissi, M.R., Davila, C., & Powdrill, L. (1995). Worriers and procrastinators: Differences in motivation, cognitive engagement, and achievement between defensive pessimists
  13. Gray, S.H., Barber, C.B., & Shasha, D. (1991). Information search with dynamic text verses paper text: An empirical comparison. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 35, 575-586.
  14. Howard, G.S., Murphy, C.M., & Thomas, G.N. (1987). Computer anxiety considerations for design of introductory computer courses. Educational Research Quarterly, 11(4), 13-23.
  15. Jonassen, D.H. (1988). Designing structured hypertext and structuring access to hypertext. Educational Technology, 28(1), 13-16.
  16. Jonassen, D.H. (1993). Effects of semantically structured hypertext knowledge
  17. Kozma, R.B. (1991). Learning with media. Review Of Educational Research, 61(2), 179-211.
  18. Liu, M. (1992). The effect of hypermedia-assisted instruction on second language learning: a semantic-network-based approach. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, West Virginia University.
  19. Marcoulides, G.A. (1988) The relationship between computer anxiety and computer achievement, Journal of Educational Computing Research, 4, 151-8.
  20. Mayer, R.E. (1975). Problem solving competencies established in learning computer programming with and without meaningful models. Journal of educational psychology, 67, 725-734.
  21. Mayer, R.E. (1976). Some conditions of meaningful learning of computer programming: Advance organizers and subject before of frame sequencing. Journal of Educational Psychology, 68, 143-150.
  22. Mayer, R.E. (1978). Can advance organizers influence meaningful learning? Review Of Educational Research, 49, 371-383.
  23. McManus, T.F. (1996) Testing learner self-regulation in a web-based learning environment. Unpublished manuscript.
  24. Park, I., & Hannafin, M.J. (1993). Empirically based guidelines for the design of interactive multimedia. Educational Technology Research & Development, 41(3), 63-85.
  25. Pintrich, P.R., & De Groot, E.V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33-40.
  26. Pintrich, P.R., & Garcia, T. (1991). Student goal orientation and self-regulation in the college classroom. In M. Maehr & P.R. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement: Goals and self-regulatory processes (Vol. 7, pp. 371-402). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  27. Pintrich, P.R., Smith, D.A.F., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W.J. (1993). Reliability and predictive validity of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53, 801813.
  28. Saidi, H. (1994). The impact of advance organizers upon students ’ achievement in computer-assisted video instruction. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 22(1), 29-38.
  29. Shin, E.C., Schallert, D.L., & Savenye, W.C. (1994). Effects of learner control, advisement, and prior knowledge on young students ’ learning in a hypertext environment. Educational Technology Research & Development, 42(1), 33-46.
  30. Snow, R. (1989). Aptitude-Treatment Interaction as a framework for research
  31. Sweany, N.D., McManus, T.F., Williams, D.C., & Tothero, K.D. (1996) The
  32. Weinstein, C.E., Palmer, D., & Schulte, A. (1987). The learning and study strategies inventory (LASSI). Clearwater, FL: H&H Publishing Company, Inc.
  33. West, C.K., Farmer, J.A., & Wolff, P.M. (1991). Instructional design: Implications from cognitive science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
  34. Williams, D. (1996). The relationship between the availability of cognitive tools and achievement in a hypermedia environment: A pilot study. URL: http://
  35. Yang, Y. (1992). The effects of media on motivation and content recall: Comparison of computer- and print-based instruction. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 20(2), 95-105.
  36. Yoon, G. (1994). The effects of instructional control, cognitive style, and prior knowledge on learning of computer-assisted instruction. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 22(4), 357-370.
  37. Zimmerman, B.J. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 329-339.
  38. Zimmerman, B.J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1986). Development of a structured

These references have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake in the references above, please contact

View References & Citations Map

Cited By

  1. Metacognitive Learning Environment: a semantic perspective

    Matteo Gaeta, Giuseppina Mangione, Francesco Orciuoli & Saverio Salerno, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Italy

    Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society Vol. 7, No. 2 (May 31, 2011) pp. 69–80

These links are based on references which have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake, please contact