A Review of Theory, Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks in Educational Technology
Michael L Schad, Moe Debbagh Greene, Monty Jones, Virginia Commonwealth University, United States
International Journal on E-Learning Volume 20, Number 2, ISSN 1537-2456 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Waynesville, NC USA
Several theoretical and conceptual frameworks have been developed to guide research that aims to examine the application and use of technology in education. These frameworks facilitate the process of generating knowledge in the evolving field of educational technology. However, research indicates that the study of educational technology is under-theorized. Many studies in educational technology make vague references to theory in conceptualizing research and in collecting and analyzing data. Moreover, the terms theoretical framework, conceptual framework and literature review are often used interchangeably by researchers. The present paper aims to provide a clear understanding of the differences between theory, theoretical and conceptual frameworks in educational technology. The purpose of the current review is not to develop an exhaustive summary encompassing all frameworks. Instead, it highlights existing theory and frameworks that are used to guide and conduct research in educational technology. The definition of educational technology, a brief history and recommendations for future research are also presented.
Schad, M.L., Greene, M.D. & Jones, M. (2021). A Review of Theory, Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks in Educational Technology. International Journal on E-Learning, 20(2), 187-198. Waynesville, NC USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).
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