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"We Always Make It Work": Teachers' Agency in the Time of Crisis

, Department of Teacher Education and School Research, University of Oslo, Norway ; , College of Education and Human Development, George Mason University, United States

Journal of Technology and Teacher Education Volume 28, Number 2, ISSN 1059-7069 Publisher: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education, Waynesville, NC USA


As of mid-April 2020, 1.5 billion learners were affected by school closures across 191 countries due to the COVID-19 pandemic (UNESCO, 2020). During the weeks of school closures, teachers were expected to become online teachers overnight. As teacher educators, we were curious about teachers’ readiness for online practice. In the Teachers’ Readiness Online (TRIO) survey (Gudmundsdottir & Hathaway, 2020), distributed internationally, we collected perspectives from 1186 teachers about their experiences related to online teaching in the early weeks of COVID-19 school closures. In this paper, we present preliminary data from Norwegian and US teachers related to previous experiences with online teaching and elaborations on readiness. We examined data for evidence of pedagogical, ethical, attitudinal, and technical (PEAT) dimensions (Dicte, 2019) to determine how teachers’ agency was activated in the times of the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings highlight that despite teachers’ inexperience and unpreparedness for online teaching, they were moderately prepared to use various digital tools and willing to make online learning work for them and their students.


Gudmundsdottir, G.B. & Hathaway, D.M. (2020). "We Always Make It Work": Teachers' Agency in the Time of Crisis. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 28(2), 239-250. Waynesville, NC USA: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education. Retrieved October 18, 2021 from .