The Disconnect Between Policy and Research: Examining the Research into Full-Time K-12 Online Learning
Michael Barbour, Sacred Heart University, United States
Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, in Las Vegas, NV, United States ISBN 978-1-939797-13-1 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Chesapeake, VA
While there has been some improvement in what is known about supplemental K-12 online learning, there continues to be a lack of evidence to guide the practice of full-time K-12 online learning. This paper concludes that despite considerable enthusiasm for full-time virtual education in some quarters, there is little high quality research to support the practice or call for expanding this form of virtual schools.
Barbour, M. (2015). The Disconnect Between Policy and Research: Examining the Research into Full-Time K-12 Online Learning. In D. Rutledge & D. Slykhuis (Eds.), Proceedings of SITE 2015--Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 1438-1445). Las Vegas, NV, United States: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved March 23, 2019 from https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/150583/.
© 2015 Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE)
- Barbour, M.K. (2005). Perceptions of effective web-based design for secondary school students: A narrative analysis of previously collected data. The Morning Watch, 32(3-4). Retrieved from http://www.mun.ca/educ/faculty/mwatch/win05/Barbour.htm
- Barbour, M.K. (2007). Principles of effective web-based content for secondary school students: Teacher and developer perceptions. Journal of Distance Education, 21(3), 93-114.
- Barbour, M.K. (2011). The promise and the reality: Exploring virtual schooling in rural jurisdictions. Education in Rural Australia, 21(1), 1-20.
- Barbour, M.K. (2013). The landscape of K-12 online learning: Examining what is known. In M.G. Moore (Eds.), Handbook of distance education (3rd ed.) (pp. 574-593). New York: Routledge.
- Barbour, M.K., & Hill, J.R. (2011). What are they doing and how are they doing it? Rural student experiences in virtual schooling. Journal of Distance Education, 25(1). Retrieved from http://www.jofde.ca/index.php/jde/article/view/725 Barbour, M.K., & Mulcahy, D. (2006). An inquiry into retention and achievement differences in campus based and web based AP courses. Rural Educator, 27(3), 8-12.
- Barbour, M.K., & Mulcahy, D. (2008). How are they doing? Examining student achievement in virtual schooling. Education in Rural Australia, 18(2), 63-74.
- Barbour, M.K., & Mulcahy, D. (2009). Student performance in virtual schooling: Looking beyond the numbers. ERS Spectrum, 27(1), 23-30
- Belsha, K. (2014, January 13). Nonprofit seeks charter legislation support from school boards. The Courier-News.
- Black, E.W., Ferdig, R.E., DiPietro, M. (2008). An overview of evaluative instrumentation for virtual high schools. American Journal of Distance Education, 22(1), 24-45.
- Borup, J., Graham, C.R., & Davies, R.S. (2013). The nature of parental interactions in an online charter school. American Journal of Distance Education, 27(1), 40-55.
- Cavanaugh, C. (2001). The effectiveness of interactive distance education technologies in K-12 learning: A metaanalysis. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, 7(1), 73-88.
- Cavanaugh, C., Barbour, M.K., & Clark, T. (2009). Research and practice in K-12 online learning: A review of literature. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(1). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/607 Cavanaugh, C., Gillan, K., Kromrey, J., Hess, M., & Blomeyer, R. (2004). The effects of distance education on K-12 student outcomes: A meta-analysis. Naperville, IL: Learning Point Associates.
- Carnahan, C., & Fulton, L. (2013). Virtually forgotten: Special education students in cyber schools. TechTrends, 57(4), 46-52.
- Center for Research on Education Outcomes. (2011). Charter school performance in Pennsylvania. Stanford, CA: Author.
- Clark, T. (2001). Virtual schools: Trends and issues– A study of virtual schools in the United States. San Francisco, CA: Western Regional Educational Laboratories.
- Clark, T. (2003). Virtual and distance education in American schools. In M.G.M.W.G. Anderson (Ed.), Handbook of distance education (pp. 673-699). Mahwah, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Clark, T. (2013). The evolution of K-12 distance education and virtual schools. In M.G. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of distance education (3rd ed.) (pp. 555-573). New York: Routledge.
- Colorado Department of Education. (2006). Report of the State Auditor: Online education. Denver, CO: Author.
- Connections Academy. (2004). Learning without boundaries: How to make virtual schooling work for you? Baltimore, MD: Author.
- Darrow, R. (2010). A comparative study between online charter high schools and traditional high schools in California. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, California State University, Fresno, CA.
- De la Varre, C., Keane, J., Irvin, M.J., & Hannum, W.H. (2011). Dual perspectives on the contribution of on-site facilitators to teaching presence in a blended learning environment. Journal of Distance Education, 25(3). Retrieved from http://www.jofde.ca/index.php/jde/article/view/751 Downey, M. (2014, January 7). Online schools: Wired for failure under current conditions? Atlanta Journal Constitution.
- Elbaum, B., McIntyre, C., & Smith, A. (2002). Essential Elements: Prepare, Design, and Teach Your Online Course. Madison, WI: Atwood Publishing.
- Espinoza, C., Dove, T., Zucker, A., & Kozma, R. (1999). An evaluation of the Virtual High School after two years in operation. Arlington, VA: SRI International. Faruqi & Faruqi, LLP. (2012). Faruqi & Faruqi, LLP files securities class action suit against K-12, Inc. And certain of its executives. New York: Author.
- Halser Waters, L. (2012). Exploring the experience of learning choices in a cyber charter schools: A qualitative case study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Hawaii, Mānoa, HI.
- Hanak, J. (2013, December 3). State Senate should reject misnamed "charter school reform" bill. The Patriot News. Hassel, B.C., Ayscue Hassel, E., Hess, F.M., Butler Battaglino, T., Haldeman, M., Laurans, E., Hill, P.T., &
- Chubb, J.E. (2012). Education reform for the digital era. Washington, DC: The Thomas B. Fordham Institute.
- Haughey, M., & Muirhead, W. (1999). On-line learning: Best practices for Alberta school jurisdictions. Edmonton, AB: Government of Alberta.
- Herold, B. (2014, January 29). Pa. Rejects cyber charter applicants, citing for-profits' role. Education Week. Retrieved from http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/DigitalEducation/2014/01/pa_rejects_cyber_charter_applicants.html
- Hubbard, B. & Mitchell, N. (2011). Online K-12 schools failing students but keeping tax dollars. I-News Network.
- Hughes, J.E., McLeod, S., Brown, R., Maeda, Y., & Choi, J. (2007). Academic achievement and perceptions of the learning environment in virtual and traditional secondary mathematics classrooms. American Journal of Distance Education, 21(4), 199-214.
- Innovation Ohio. (2011). Ohio e-schools: Funding failure; Coddling contributors. Columbus, OH: Author.
- Irvin, M.J., Hannum, W.H., Farmer, T.W., de la Varre, C., & Keane, J. (2009). Supporting online learning for Advanced Placement students in small rural schools: Conceptual foundations and intervention components of the Facilitator Preparation Program. The Rural Educator, 31(1), 29-36.
- Joint Legislative Audit Committee. (2010). An evaluation: Virtual charter schools. Madison, WI: Legislative Audit Bureau. K-12, Inc. (2012). K-12® virtual academies academic performance trends. Herndon, VA: Author. K-12, Inc. (2013). 2013 K-12® academic report. Herndon, VA: Author.
- Kanna, E., Gillis, L., & Culver, C. (2009). Virtual schooling: A guide to optimizing your child’s education. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
- Klein, C. (2006). Virtual charter schools and homeschooling. Youngstown, NY: Cambria Press.
- Knittle, A. (2013, December 30). Millions in state aid go to online charter schools in Oklahoma. The Oklahoman.
- Kozma, R., Zucker, A., & Espinoza, C. (1998). An evaluation of the Virtual High School after one year in operation. Arlington, VA: SRI International.
- Kwitowski, J. (2011). AYP, an unreliable measure of school performance. K-12 Blog. Retrieved from http://k12choice.com/index.php?option=com_rsblog & Layout=view & Cid=7:ayp-an-unreliable-measure-ofschool-performance& Itemid=77
- Lui, F., Black, E., Algina, J., Cavanaugh, C., & Dawson, K. (2010). The validation of one parental in-volvement measurement in virtual schooling. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 9(2). Retrieved from http://www.ncolr.org/issues/jiol/v9/n2/the-validation-of-one-parental-involvement-measurement-in-virtualschooling
- Liu, F., & Cavanaugh, C. (2011). High enrollment course success factors in virtual school: Factors influencing student academic achievement. International Journal on E-Learning, 10(4), 393-418.
- Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M., & Jones, K. (2009). Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online learning studies. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development.
- Miron, G., & Urschel, J. (2012). Understanding and improving full-time virtual schools. Denver, CO: National Education Policy Center. Molnar, A. (Ed.); Miron, G., Huerta, L., Cuban, L., Horvitz, B., Gulosino, C., Rice, J.K., & Shafer, S.R. (2013). Virtual schools in the U.S. 2013:Politics, performance, policy, and research evidence. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center.
- McCorry, K. (2013, December 2). Despite dismal record of Pa. Cyber charter schools, six more apply to open. NewsWorks.
- O’Dwyer, L., Carey, R., & Kleiman, G. (2007). A study of the effectiveness of the Louisiana Algebra I on-line course. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 39(3), 289-306.
- Ohanian, S. (2004). The K-12 virtual primary school history curriculum: A participant’s-eye view. Tempe, AZ: Education Policy Studies Laboratory.
- Ohio Alliance for Public Charter Schools. (2009). E-schools show superior results: Analysis of state value-added data confirms e-schools students’ progress. Columbus, OH: Author.
- Patrick, S., & Powell, A. (2009). A summary of research on the effectiveness of K-12 online learning. Vienna, VA: International Association for K-12 Online Learning.
- Rice, K.L. (2006). A comprehensive look at distance education in the K-12 context. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(4), 425-448.
- Roblyer, M.D. (2005). Who plays well in the virtual sandbox? Characteristics of successful online students and teachers. SIGTel Bulletin, (2).
- Roblyer, M.D. (2006). Virtually successful: Defeating the dropout problem through online school programs. Phi Delta Kappan. 88(1), 31-36.
- Roblyer, M.D., Davis, L., Mills, S.C., Marshall, J., & Pape, L. (2008) Toward practical procedures for predicting and promoting success in virtual school students. American Journal of Distance Education, 22(2), 90–109.
- Ryman, A., & Kossan, P. (2011). The race to online: Arizona experiments with virtual K-12 schools. Will they work for your child? Arizona Republic.
- Saul, S. (2011, December 12). Profits and questions at online charter schools. New York Times.
- State of Colorado. (2013). School performance framework 2012: Colorado Virtual Academy (COVA). Denver, CO: Author.
- Tonks, D., Weston, S., Wiley, D., & Barbour, M.K. (2013). “Opening” a new kind of high school: The story of the Open High School of Utah. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(1). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1345/2419 Utah State Office of Education. (2014). Public school data gateway. Salt Lake City, UT: Author. Retrieved from https://psdreports.schools.utah.gov/Gateway/
- Watson, J., Murin, A., Vashaw, L., Gemin, B., & Rapp, C. (2010). Keeping pace with K-12 online learning: An annual review of state-level policy and practice. Evergreen, CO: Evergreen Education Group.
- Watson, J., Murin, A., Vashaw, L., Gemin, B., & Rapp, C. (2011). Keeping pace with K-12 online learning: An annual review of state-level policy and practice. Evergreen, CO: Evergreen Education Group.
- Yamashiro, K., & Zucker, A. (1999). An expert panel review of the quality of Virtual High School courses: Final report. Arlington, VA: SRI International.
- Zimmer, R., Gill, B., Booker, K., Lavertu, S., Sass, T.R., & Witte, J. (2009). Charter schools in eight states effects on achievement, attainment, integration, and competition. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
- Zucker, A., & Kozma, R. (2003). The Virtual High School: Teaching generation V. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
These references have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake in the references above, please contact email@example.com.
Revising the iNACOL Quality Standards for Online Education: Considerations for Students with Disabilities
Mary Rice, Jesse Pace & Daryl Mellard, University of Kansas, United States
Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2017 (Mar 05, 2017) pp. 700–708
These links are based on references which have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.