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Affect and Learning: An Exploratory Look into the Role of Affect in Learning with AutoTutor

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Journal of Educational Media Volume 29, Number 3, ISSN 1358-1651


The role that affective states play in learning was investigated from the perspective of a constructivist learning framework. We observed six different affect states (frustration, boredom, flow, confusion, eureka and neutral) that potentially occur during the process of learning introductory computer literacy with AutoTutor, an intelligent tutoring system with tutorial dialogue in natural language. Observational analyses revealed significant relationships between learning and the affective states of boredom, flow and confusion. The positive correlation between confusion and learning is consistent with a model that assumes that cognitive disequilibrium is one precursor to deep learning. The findings that learning correlates negatively with boredom and positively with flow are consistent with predictions from Csikszentmihalyi's analysis of flow experiences.


Craig, S.D., Graesser, A.C., Sullins, J. & Gholson, B. (2004). Affect and Learning: An Exploratory Look into the Role of Affect in Learning with AutoTutor. Journal of Educational Media, 29(3), 241-250. Retrieved August 18, 2019 from .

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