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Testing a Will, Skill, Tool Model of Technology Integration

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American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting,


The Will, Skill, Tool (WST) model of technology integration (G. Knezek, R. Christensen, R. Hancock, and A. Shoho, 2000) postulates that enhancing an educator's will, skill, and access to technology tools leads to higher stages of classroom technology integration, which in turn leads to greater student achievement. In this paper, regression analyses and structural equation modeling techniques are presented representing a wide variety of data sets from Texas public schools in order to test combinations of observed variables that optimize the WST model fit statistics. Data sets were: (1) survey responses of 39 teachers in a metropolitan area; (2) data from 100 public school districts about funding and student achievement; (3) data about integration of technology from 12 teachers and their 170 first- and second-grade students; (4) technology integration data from the same 12 teachers; and (5) data from 1,267 K-12 teachers about classroom technology integration. The analyzed of these data sets support the use of the WST model. Implications for educational evaluation and policy are discussed. (Contains 19 references.) (SLD)


Knezek, G., Christensen, R. & Fluke, R. (2003). Testing a Will, Skill, Tool Model of Technology Integration. Presented at American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting 2003. Retrieved May 28, 2020 from .

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