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Developing Technical Expertise in Secondary Technical Schools: The Effect of 4C/ID Learning Environments


Learning Environments Research Volume 10, Number 3, ISSN 1387-1579


In this study, the effectiveness of learning environments, developed in line with the specifications of the four components instructional design model (4C/ID model) and the additional effect of ICT for fostering the development of technical expertise in traditional Ghanaian classrooms, was assessed. The study had a one-by-one-by-two pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design. Three functionally equivalent classes of students from three similar (secondary technical) schools were randomly exposed to three different treatments. The sample consisted of 129 students. The treatment groups consisted of one control group with a regular method of teaching and two experimental groups: a 4C/ID learning environment with ICT; and a 4C/ID learning environment without ICT. The content for the treatments was selected from the secondary technical education syllabus. Technical teachers were trained to implement the interventions. After the pilot study, the materials were validated by experts and revised. Teachers were retrained. The main study, consisting of six sessions, was conducted in regular classrooms in three schools. Results indicated that a 4C/ID learning environment promotes the development of technical expertise in secondary technical education better than teaching designed in line with a regular method of teaching. Moreover, results reveal no significant difference in learning gains for the 4C/ID learning environment between the group with ICT and the group without ICT. In the final section, the theoretical, research and practical implications of the results for the instructional design and technology community as well as for educational practice, are discussed.


Sarfo, F.K. & Elen, J. (2007). Developing Technical Expertise in Secondary Technical Schools: The Effect of 4C/ID Learning Environments. Learning Environments Research, 10(3), 207-221. Retrieved November 26, 2022 from .

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