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A Structural Equation Model of Predictors for Effective Online Learning

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Journal of Management Education Volume 29, Number 4, ISSN 1052-5629


In studying online learning, researchers should examine three critical interactions: instructor-student, student-student, and student-content. Student-content interaction may include a wide variety of pedagogical tools (e.g., streaming media, PowerPoint, and hyperlinking). Other factors that can affect the perceived quality of online learning include distance education advantages (e.g., work and family flexibility) and antecedent personal characteristics (e.g., experience and gender). The study indicated that instructor-student interaction is most important, twice that of student-student interaction; that some student-content interaction is significantly related to perceived learning; that antecedent variables are not significant; and that distance education advantages/flexibility, although significant, are less important than other interactions. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.)


Marks, R.B., Sibley, S.D. & Arbaugh, J.B. (2005). A Structural Equation Model of Predictors for Effective Online Learning. Journal of Management Education, 29(4), 531-563. Retrieved June 17, 2019 from .

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