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Grounding in Instant Messaging

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Journal of Educational Computing Research Volume 45, Number 4, ISSN 0735-6331


In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we document how IM changes as users increase in expertise. In Study 2, we compare adaptations across telephoning and IM with a focus on multitasking. (Contains 1 table.)


Fox Tree, J.E., Mayer, S.A. & Betts, T.E. (2011). Grounding in Instant Messaging. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 45(4), 455-475. Retrieved December 5, 2020 from .

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