You are here:

An Examination of Motivation Model Components in Face-to-Face and Online Instruction

EJREP Volume 8, Number 3, ISSN 1696-2095


Introduction: The MUSIC Model of Academic Motivation consists of psychological components (i.e., empowerment, usefulness, success, interest, and caring) that have been derived from research and theory as ones that are critical to student engagement in academic settings. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine whether men and women rate these psychological components differently in traditional face-to-face and online courses, and (2) determine which of the psychological components best predicts men and women's effort, instructor ratings, course ratings, and achievement in a face-to-face and online course. Method: Participants included 245 students in a face-to-face course and 218 students in an online course who completed a questionnaire in a Personal Health course at a large public university in the U.S. I conducted correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and regression analyses to examine the data. Results: Although several similarities between sexes and course types (face-to-face and online) existed for the components of the MUSIC model, I also documented many differences. Overall, the pattern of results indicated that the components of the MUSIC model were significantly related to students' effort, instructor ratings, and course ratings. In all conditions, instructor rating was best predicted by academic caring, course rating was best predicted by situational interest, and achievement was best predicted by perceptions of success. Conclusion: To maximize students' effort and achievement, as well as their instructor and course ratings in both face-to-face and online courses, instructors should consider the components of the MUSIC Model of Academic Motivation. (Contains 7 tables.)


Jones, B.D. (2010). An Examination of Motivation Model Components in Face-to-Face and Online Instruction. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 8(3), 915-944. Retrieved January 28, 2020 from .

This record was imported from ERIC on April 19, 2013. [Original Record]

ERIC is sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) of the U.S. Department of Education.

Copyright for this record is held by the content creator. For more details see ERIC's copyright policy.


Cited By

View References & Citations Map

These links are based on references which have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake, please contact