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Augmenting paper-based reading activity with direct access to digital materials and scaffolded questioning

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Computers & Education Volume 57, Number 2, ISSN 0360-1315 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


Comprehension is the goal of reading. However, students often encounter reading difficulties due to the lack of background knowledge and proper reading strategy. Unfortunately, print text provides very limited assistance to one’s reading comprehension through its static knowledge representations such as symbols, charts, and graphs. Integrating digital materials and reading strategy into paper-based reading activities may bring opportunities for learners to make meaning of the print material. In this study, QR codes were adopted in association with mobile technology to deliver supplementary materials and questions to support students’ reading. QR codes were printed on paper prints to provide direct access to digital materials and scaffolded questions. Smartphones were used to scan the printed QR codes to fetch pre-designed digital resources and scaffolded questions over the Internet. A quasi-experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of direct access to the digital materials prepared by the instructor using QR codes and that of scaffolded questioning in improving students’ reading comprehension. The results suggested that direct access to digital resources using QR codes does not significantly influence students’ reading comprehension; however, the reading strategy of scaffolded questioning significantly improves students’ understanding about the text. The survey showed that most students agreed that the integrated print-and-digital-material- based learning system benefits English reading comprehension but may not be as efficient as expected. The implications of the findings shed light on future improvement of the system.


Chen, N.S., Teng, D.C.E., Lee, C.H. & Kinshuk. (2011). Augmenting paper-based reading activity with direct access to digital materials and scaffolded questioning. Computers & Education, 57(2), 1705-1715. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved October 16, 2019 from .

This record was imported from Computers & Education on January 29, 2019. Computers & Education is a publication of Elsevier.

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