You are here:

Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand PROCEEDINGS

, International Association for K-12 Online Learning, United States ; , Wayne State University, Canada

Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, in Austin, Texas, USA ISBN 978-1-880094-92-1 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Chesapeake, VA

Abstract

In 2006 the North American Council for Online Learning surveyed the activity and policy relating to primary and secondary e-learning, which they defined as online learning, in a selection of countries. They found most were embracing e-learning delivery of education as a central strategy for enabling reform, modernising schools, and increasing access to high-quality education. While North American countries appeared to be using the internet as a medium to provide distance education at the secondary level longer than most countries, the lack of a guiding vision has created uneven opportunities for students depending on which state or province they live in. In New Zealand, the government has sought to provide a vision or guiding framework for the development of e-learning. In this article we trace that vision by describing three policy documents released by the New Zealand government over the past decade, and how that vision for e-learning has allowed increased development of primary and secondary online learning.

Citation

Powell, A. & Barbour, M. (2012). Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand. In P. Resta (Ed.), Proceedings of SITE 2012--Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 783-790). Austin, Texas, USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved October 21, 2018 from .

View References & Citations Map

References

  1. Barbour, M.K. (2009). Today’s student and virtual schooling: The reality, the challenges, the promise… Journal of Distance Learning, 13(1), 5–25.
  2. Blomeyer, R. (2002). Virtual schools and e-learning in K–12 environments: Emerging policy and practice. NCREL Policy Issues, 11. Naperville, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved from http://www.ncrel.org/policy/pubs/pdfs/pivol11.pdf
  3. Clark, T. (2001). Virtual schools: Trends and issues—A study of virtual schools in the United States. San Francisco, CA: Western Regional Educational Laboratories. Retrieved from http://www.wested.org/online_pubs/virtualschools.pdf
  4. Cramer, S., Krasinki, S., Crutchfield, M.D., Sackmary, B., & Scalia, L. (2000). Using collaboration and the web to implement the new CEC standards. Teaching Exceptional Children, 32(5), 12–19.
  5. Ham, V., & Wenmoth, D. (2010). E-Learnings: Implementing a national strategy project for ICT in education, 1998–2010. Christchurch, New Zealand: CORE Education. International Association for K–12 Online Learning (iNACOL). (2009). Fast facts. Vienna, VA: Author. Retrieved from http://www.inacol.org/press/docs/NACOL_fastfacts-lrOct2010.pdf
  6. Lai, K.W. (2005). E-Learning communities: Teaching and Learning with the web. Dunedin, New Zealand: University of Otago Press.
  7. Lai, K.W. & Pratt, K. (2010). Technological constraints and implementation barriers of using videoconferencing for virtual teaching in New Zealand secondary schools. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 17(4), 505–522.
  8. Ministry of Economic Development. (2006). The digital strategy 2.0. Wellington, New Zealand: Author. Retrieved from http://www.med.govt.nz/upload/11162/Digital%20Strategy%202.0%20FINAL.pdf
  9. Ministry of Economic Development. (2010). Ultra-fast broadband initiative. Wellington, New Zealand: Author. Retrieved from http://www.med.govt.nz/templates/ContentTopicSummary____41902.aspx
  10. Plante, J., & Beattie, D. (2004). Connectivity and ICT integration in Canadian elementary and secondary schools: First results from the information and communications technologies in schools survey, 2003–2004. Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada.
  11. Roberts, R. (2009). Videoconferencing in distance learning: A New Zealand schools’ perspective. Journal of Distance Learning, 13(1), 91-107.
  12. Roberts, R. (2010). Increasing access for learners: The Virtual Learning Network. In V. Ham & D. Wenmoth, (Eds.). E-Learnings: Implementing a national strategy project for ICT in education, 1998-2010 (144–152). Christchurch, New Zealand: CORE Education.
  13. Stevens, K. (1992). Recent developments in rural and distance education in New Zealand and their implications. New Zealand Annual Review of Education 1, 160–172.
  14. Stevens, K. (1999). Telecommunications technologies, telelearning and the development of virtual classes for rural New Zealanders. Open Praxis: The Bulletin of the International Council for Distance Education 1, 12–14.
  15. Stevens, K. (2000). Telelearning and the education of rural students in Newfoundland and New Zealand. Geocarrefour 75(1), 87–92.
  16. Stevens, K. (2001). A four-step process for the development of knowledge-building communities in a digital intranet. Journal of Distance Learning, 6(1), 45–48.
  17. Stevens, K. (2003). Open learning to sustain rural schools: The replication of a three-stage model. New Zealand Annual Review of Education, 12, 127–140.
  18. Stevens, K., & Moffatt, C. (2003). From distance education to e-learning: The organization of open classes at local, regional and national levels. In J. Bradley. (Eds.), The open classroom: Distance learning in and out of schools (171–180). London, U.K., Kogan. Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu/The Correspondence School. (2011). Our history: Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu. Wellington, New Zealand: Author. Retrieved from http://www.correspondence.school.nz/about-us/history
  19. Watson, J., Gemin, B., & Ryan, J. (2008). Keeping pace with K–12 online learning: A review of state-level policy and practice. Evergreen, CO: Evergreen Associates. Retrieved from http://www.kpk12.com/downloads/KeepingPace_2008.pdf
  20. Wenmoth, D. (1996). Learning in the distributed classroom. SET Research Information for Teachers, 2(4). 1–4.
  21. Wright, N. (2010). E-Learning and implications for New Zealand schools: A literature review. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education.

These references have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake in the references above, please contact info@learntechlib.org.