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Barriers to Utilizing ICT in Education in Jordan

, Örebro University, Sweden, Jordan ; , University of Hawaii at Manoa, United States

International Journal on E-Learning Volume 13, Number 2, ISSN 1537-2456 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Waynesville, NC USA


This study explored barriers to utilizing information and communication technologies (ICT) for teaching and learning in the country of Jordan as indicated by participating stakeholders: students, teachers, and administrators. Jordan is a developing country in the heart of the Middle East with both tremendous opportunity as well as significant challenges. In the area of education, this study investigated ICT barriers through an interpretative case study, the Jordanian Education Initiative. The study relied on the technology-to-performance chain (TPC) model as a conceptual research framework in a qualitative analysis. Fifteen barriers were identified based on this analysis. Twelve barriers were directly attributed to utilization factors proposed by the TPC model that were in turn viewed as barrier factors (expected consequences and affect toward use, habit, social norms, and facilitating conditions). A significant number of barriers were related to “facilitating conditions,” a category that placed significant responsibility on the Ministry of Education to offer increased resources and opportunities to facilitate the process of integrating technology into education in Jordan. Although barriers were significant, the paper recommended additional institutional support for the JEI and increased technical and pedagogical training for teachers. The study also provided policy recommendations and suggestions for further research.


Alkhawaldeh, N. & Menchaca, M. (2014). Barriers to Utilizing ICT in Education in Jordan. International Journal on E-Learning, 13(2), 127-155. Waynesville, NC USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved November 30, 2021 from .