You are here:

The Current State of Field Experiences in K-12 Online Learning Programs in the U.S.

, Georgia Southern University, United States ; , Arizona State University, United States

Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, in Nashville, Tennessee, USA ISBN 978-1-880094-84-6 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Chesapeake, VA


This study provides a status report on the state of field experiences in K-12 online learning programs in the United States. After developing a survey instrument, teacher education programs and K-12 online learning programs were surveyed to find out what they are doing to help prepare pre-service teachers for K-12 online learning environments. While teachers are currently coming from the traditional classroom to teach in K-12 online settings, as the demand for K-12 online teachers increases, it is likely that more educators will be recruited directly from undergraduate programs. Colleges of education would benefit from addressing the growing need to prepare future K-12 online teachers, and the current study highlights the importance of continued research in this area. Important ramifications exist for the field of K-12 online learning as well as for programs of teacher education who are, whether it is realized or not, preparing tomorrow’s educators for fully online, hybrid, and blended classrooms.


Kennedy, K. & Archambault, L. (2011). The Current State of Field Experiences in K-12 Online Learning Programs in the U.S. In M. Koehler & P. Mishra (Eds.), Proceedings of SITE 2011--Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 3454-3461). Nashville, Tennessee, USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved March 22, 2019 from .


View References & Citations Map


  1. Aiken, I.P., & Day, B.D. (1999). Early field experiences in preservice teacher education: Research and student perspectives. Action in Teacher Education, 21(3), 7-12.
  2. Allen, D.W., & Eve, A.W. (1968). Microteaching. Theory into Practice, 7(5), 181-185.
  3. Archambault, L.M. & Crippen, K.J. (2009). K-12 distance educators at work: Who’s teaching online across the United States. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(4), 363-391.
  4. Ballantyne, R., & Hansford, B. (1995). Mentoring beginning teachers: A qualitative analysis of process and outcomes. Educational Review, 47(3), 297-308.
  5. Beijaard, D., Verloop, N., & Vermunt, J.D. (2000). Teachers’ perceptions of professional identity: An exploratory study from a personal knowledge perspective. Teacher and Teacher Education, 16(7), 749-764.
  6. Cattley, G. (2007). Emergence of professional identity for the pre-service teacher. International Education Journal, 8(2), 337-347.
  7. Compton, L., & Davis, N. (2010). The impact of and the key elements from a successful virtual early field experience: Lessons learned from a case study. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 10(3), 309-337.
  8. Compton, L., Davis, N.E., & Mackey, J. (2009). Field experience in virtual schooling-To be there virtually. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 17(4), 459-477.
  9. Christensen, C.M., Horn, M.B., & Johnson, C.W. (2008). Disrupting class: How disruptive innovation will change the way the world learns. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  10. Davis, N.E., Compton, L., & Mackey, J. (2009, March). Field experience with a virtual school's teacher: How can it be done? Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education, Charleston, SC.
  11. Davis, N.E., & Rose, R. (2007). Professional development for virtual schooling and online learning. International Association for K-12 Online Learning. Retrieved from
  12. Dillman, D.A. (2010). Email and Internet surveys: The tailored design method (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
  13. Feiman-Nemser, S. (2001). From preparation to practice: Designing a continuum to strengthen and sustain teaching. Teachers College Record, 103(6), 1013-1055.
  14. Ferdig, R., Cavanaugh, C., DiPietro, M., Black, E., Mulkey, J., & Dawson, K. (2009). Virtual schooling standards and best practices for teacher education. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 17(4), 479-503.
  15. Freese, A.R. (1999). The role of reflection on preservice teachers’ development in the context of a professional development school. Teaching and Teacher Education, 15(8), 895-909.
  16. Gardner, H., & Henry, M.A. (1968). Designing effective internships in teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 19(2), 177-186.
  17. Harlin, R.P. (1999). Developing future professionals: Influences of literacy coursework and field experiences. Reading Research and Instruction, 38(4), 351-370.
  18. Hatton, N., & Smith, D. (1995). Reflection in teacher education: Towards definition and implementation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 11(1), 33-49.
  19. Irvine, V., Mappin, D., & Code, J. (2003). Preparing teachers to teach online: The role of faculties of education. In D. Lassner& C. McNaught (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications (pp. 1978-1981). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
  20. Joyce, B., Yarger, S.J., Howey, K., Harbeck, K., & Kluwin, T. (1977). Reflection on preservice education: Impressions from the national survey. Journal of Teacher Education, 28(5), 14-37.
  21. Kennedy, K. (2010). Cross-reference of online teaching standards and the development of quality teachers for 21st century learning environments. Distance Learning: A Magazine for Leaders, 7(2), 21-28.
  22. Kennedy, K., Cavanaugh, C., & Dawson, K. (2010). Pre-service teachers’ experience in a virtual school. Manuscript submitted for publication. 36 pages.
  23. Koran, M.L., Snow, R.E., & McDonald, F.J. (1971). Teacher aptitude and observational learning of a teaching skill. Journal of Educational Psychology, 62(3), 219-228.
  24. Manfreda, K.L., Bosnjak, M., Berzelak, J., Hass, I., & Vehovar, V. (2008). Web surveys versus other survey modes: a meta-analysis comparing response rate. International Journal of Market Research, 50(1), 79–104.
  25. Moore, C. (1979). National survey queries early clinical experiences. ATE Newsletter, 12, 3.
  26. Mule, L. (2006). Preservice teachers’ inquiry in a professional development school context: Implications for the practicum. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22(2), 205-218.
  27. National Education Association. (2006). NEA Guide to Teaching Online Courses. Retrieved from
  28. Shih, T., & Fan, X. (2008). Comparing response rates from Web and mail surveys: a meta-analysis. Field Methods, 20(3), 249–271.
  29. Southern Regional Educational Board. (2006). SREB essential principles of high-quality online teaching: Guidelines for evaluating K-12 online teachers. Retrieved from
  30. Strauss, A.L., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (2nd ed.). London: Sage. University of Central Florida Newsroom (UCF). (2009). Florida Virtual School and UCF team up for first-of-itskind program. Retrieved from 004102975ad83011b2b83251c0c35
  31. Wiggins, R.A., & Follo, E.J. (1999). Development of knowledge, attitudes, and commitment to teach diverse student populations. Journal of Teacher Education, 50(2), 94-105.
  32. Wiggins, R.A., Follo, E.J., & Eberly, M.B. (2007). The impact of a field immersion program on pre-service teachers’ attitudes toward teaching in culturally diverse classrooms. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23(5), 653663.
  33. Zeichner, K.M. (1984). The ecology of field experience: Toward an understanding of the role of field experiences in teacher development. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of Teacher Educators, New Orleans.

These references have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake in the references above, please contact

View References & Citations Map

Cited By

  1. New Zealand teacher educators’ knowledge of and attitudes towards online and blended learning

    Sandra Williamson-Leadley & Keryn Pratt, University of Otago, New Zealand

    Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2017 (Mar 05, 2017) pp. 724–726

  2. Professional Development Supports for the Blended, Co-Taught Classroom

    Somer Lewis & Amy Garrett Dikkers, University of North Carolina Wilmington, United States

    Journal of Online Learning Research Vol. 2, No. 2 (Aug 01, 2016) pp. 103–121

These links are based on references which have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake, please contact