Login or register for free to remove ads.
You are here:

Computer games and learning: The relationship between design, gameplay and outcomes ARTICLE

, , Open University in Hagen, Germany

Journal of Interactive Learning Research Volume 23, Number 3, ISSN 1093-023X Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Waynesville, NC

Abstract

This article presents a review of existent literature that provides insight in the effectiveness of computer learning games. Based on this research, the effectiveness of games is illustrated in detail with regard to three current perspectives on games: design characteristics of games, the process of gameplay and the reflection of specific objectives and outcomes. Although, all perspectives are connect with the hope of better learning through games, it is criticized that the effectiveness cannot be simply answered by one of the three alone. The goal of the article is therefore to clarify the different views. To further advance game research and design decisions, recommendations are proposed that include research on and alignment of individual learner factors, game design and learning outcomes.

Citation

Schrader, C. & Bastiaens, T. (2012). Computer games and learning: The relationship between design, gameplay and outcomes. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 23(3), 251-271. Waynesville, NC: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved September 19, 2017 from .

Keywords

References

  1. Ainley, M., Corrigan, M., & Richardson, N. (2005). Students, tasks and emotions: identifying the contribution of emotions to students’ reading of popular culture and popular science texts. Learning and Instruction, 15, 433-447.
  2. Aitkin, A. (2004). Playing at Reality: Exploring the Potential of the Digital Game as a Medium for Science Communication. Gamasutra.
  3. Astleitner, H. (2000). Designing emotionally sound instruction: The FeaSP-approach. Instructional Science, 28, 169–198.
  4. Azevedo, R. (2005). Computer environments as Metacognitive Tool for enhancing learning. Educational Psychologist, 40(4), 193-197.
  5. Barrows, H. S., & Tamblyn, R. M. (1980). Problem-based learning: an approach to Medical education.
  6. Beale, I. L., Kato, P. M., Marin-Bowling, V. M., Guthrie, N., & Cole, S. W. (2007). Improvement in cancer-related knowledge following use of a psychoeducational video game for adolescents and young adults with cancer. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(3), 263-270.
  7. Belanich, J., Sibley, D. E., & Orvis, K. L. (2004). Instructional characteristics and motivational features of a PC-based game (ARI Research Report 1822). Alexandria, Va.: U.S. Army research institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
  8. Berger, A. (2006, January 31). “neverwinter nights” in the classroom. Retrieved 02.08.2011, from
  9. Boud, D., Keogh, R., & Walker, D. (1985). Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning. London: Kogan Page.
  10. Brown, A. L. (1978). Knowing when, where, and how to remember: a problem
  11. Bruner, J. S. (1961). The act of discovery. Harvard Educational Review, 31, 2132.
  12. Bruner, J. S. (1966). Toward a theory of instruction. Cambridge, Ma: Belknap. Burleson, W., & Picard, R. W. (2004). Affective agents: Sustaining motivation to learn through failure and a state of stuck. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Workshop on social and emotional intelligence in learning environments. Maceio-alagoas, Brazil: iTS.
  13. Castronova, E. (2007, november 27). Terra nova: Two releases: arden i and exodus.
  14. Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (1991). Cognitive load theory and the format of instruction. Cognition and Instruction, 8(4), 293-332.
  15. Cobb, S., & Fraser, D. S. (2005). Multimedia learning in Games, Simulations, and Microworlds. In R. E. Mayer (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (pp. 525-547). Cambridge, new York, Melbourne: Cambridge university Press.
  16. Costikyan, G. (2002). I have no words & I must design: Toward a critical vocabulary for games. Paper presented at the Computer Games and digital
  17. De Felix, J. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1994). Learning from Video Games. Computers in the Schools, 9(2), 119-134.
  18. De Freitas, S. I. (2006). Using games and simulations for supporting learning. Learning, Media and Technology, 31(4), 342-358.
  19. Dede, C. (1995). The evolution of constructivistic learning environments: immersion in distributed, virtual worlds. Educational technology, 35(5), 4652.
  20. Dede, C., Ketelhut, D. J., & Reuss, K. (2003). Motivation, Usability, and Learning Outcomes in a Prototype Museum-based Multi-User Virtual Environment.
  21. Dweck, C. S. (2002). Messages that motivate: how praise molds students’ beliefs, motivation, and performance (in surprising ways). In J. Aronson (ed.),
  22. Egenfeldt-nielsen, S. (2005). Beyond Edutainment. Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games. IT-university of Copenhagen, Copenhagen.
  23. Fromme, J. (2003). Computer Games as a Part of Children’s Culture. Game studies, 3(1). Retrieved 09.08.2011, from http://www.gamestudies.org/0301/fromme/
  24. Gopher, D., Weil, M., & Bareket, T. (1994). Transfer of skill from a computer game trainer to flight. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 36, 387-405.Gopher, D., Weil, M., & Bareket, T. (1994). Transfer of skill from a computer game trainer to flight. Human Factors, 36, 387-405.
  25. Gredler, M. E. (1996). Educational games and simulations: a technology in search of a research paradigm. In D. H. Jonassen (ed.), Handbook of research for educational communications and technology (pp. 521-539). New York: MacMillan.
  26. Hasselhorn, M., & Mähler, C. (2000). Transfer: Theorien, Technologien und empirische erfassung. In W. Hager, J.-L. Patry & H. Brezing (eds.), Evaluation psychologischer Interventionsmaßnahmen. Standards und Kriterien:
  27. Heers, R. (2005). Being There. Untersuchungen zum Wissenserwerb in virtuellen Umgebungen. (dissertation, Fakultät für informations- und Kognitionswissenschaften, Tübingen).
  28. Juul, J. (2005). Half-real: video games between real rules and fictional worlds. Cambridge, london: The MiT Press.
  29. Kalyuga, S., & Plass, J. (2009). Evaluating and Managing Cognitive load in Games. In R. E. Ferdig (ed.), handbook of research on effective electronic
  30. Kerres, M., Bormann, M., & Vervenne, M. (2009). Didaktische Konzeption von Serious Games: Zur Verknüpfung von Spiel- und lernangeboten. MedienPädagogik. Zeitschrift für Theorie und Praxis der Medienbildung.
  31. Kiili, K. (2005). Digital game-based learning: Towards an experiential gaming model. The Internet and Higher Education, 8(1), 13-24.
  32. Kirschner, P. A. (2002). Cognitive load theory: implications of cognitive load theory on the design of learning. Learning and Instruction, 12, 1-10.
  33. Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: an analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 46, 75-86.
  34. Kolb, D. A. (1983). Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. New Jersey: Prentice hall.
  35. Krapp, A., & Weidenmann, B. (2001). Pädagogische Psychologie (4 ed.). Weinheim: Beltz.
  36. Krathwohl, D. R., Bloom, B. S., & Masia, B. B. (1964). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. The Classification of Educational Goals. Handbook II: Affective Domain. New York: david McKay Company.
  37. Leemkuil, H. (2006). Is it all in the game? Learner support in an educational knoweldge management simulation game. Unpublished doctoral Thesis. University of Twente, enschede, The netherlands.
  38. Leutner, D. (1993). Guided discovery learning with computer-based simulation games: effects of adaptive and non-adaptive instructional support. Learning and Instruction, 3(2), 113-132.
  39. Lin, X., Schwartz, D. L., & Hatano, G. (2005). Toward Teachers’ adaptive Metacognition. Educational Psychologist, 40(4), 245-255.
  40. Linnenbrink, E.A., & Pintrich, P.R. (2002). Achievement goal theory and affect: an asymetrical bidirectional model. Educational Psychologist, 37, 69-78.
  41. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, nJ: Prentice-hall.
  42. Malone, T. W. (1981). What makes computer games fun? Byte, 6(12), 258-277.
  43. Malone, T. W., & Lepper, M. R. (1987). Making learning fun: a taxonomy of intrinsic motivations for learning. In R. E. Snow & M. J. Farr (eds.), Aptitute,
  44. Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. Cambridge: Cambridge university Press.
  45. Mayer, R. E. (2005). Principles of Multimedia learning Based on Social Cues: Personalization, Voice, and image Principles. In R. E. Mayer (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (pp. 201-214). Cambridge: Cambridge university Press.
  46. Mayer, R. E., & Moreno, R. (2003). Nine Ways to reduce Cognitive load in Multimedia learning. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 43-52.
  47. Meinhardt, J., & Pekrun, R. (2003). Attentional resource allocation to emotional events: an erP study. Cognition and Emotion, 17(3), 477-500.
  48. Moreno, R. (2004). Decreasing cognitive load for novice students: effects of explanatory versus corrective feedback on discovery-based multimedia. Instructional Science, 32, 99-113.
  49. Moreno, R., & Mayer, R. E. (2002). Learning Science in Virtual reality Multimedia environments: role of Methods and Media. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(3), 598-610.
  50. Nelson, B. (2007). Exploring the use of individualized, reflective guidance in an educational multi-user virtual environment. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 16, 83-97.
  51. O’neil, H., Wainess, R., & Baker, E. (2005). Classification of learning outcomes: evidence from the computer games literature. Curriculum Journal, 16(4), 455-474.
  52. Ortony, A., & Turner, T. J. (1990). What’s basic about basic emotions? Psychological Review, 97, 315-331.
  53. Pekrun, R. (2006). The Control-Value Theory of achievement emotions: assumptions, Corollaries, and implications for educational research and Practice. Educational Psychologist, 18, 315-341.
  54. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. P. (2002). Academic emotions in students’ self-regulated learning and achievement: a program of qualitive and quantitative research. Educational Psychologist, 37, 91-106.
  55. Ricci, K, Salas, E., & Cannon-Bowers, J.A. (1996). Do computer-based games facilitate knowledge aquisition and retention? Military Psychology, 8(4), 295-307.
  56. Rieber, L. P. (1991). Animation, incidental learning, and Continuing Motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(3), 318-328.
  57. Rieber, L. P. (2005). Multimedia learning in Games, Simulations, and Microworlds. In R. E. Mayer (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia
  58. Rieber, L. P., & Noah, D. (1997, March). Effect of gaming and graphical metaphors on reflective cognition within computer-based simulations. Paper presented
  59. Rieber, L. P., Smith, L., & Noah, D. (1998). The value of serious play. Educational Technology, 38(6), 29-37.
  60. Salen, K., & Zimmermann, E. (2004). Rules of Play. Game Design Fundamentals. Massachusetts: MiT Press.
  61. Salen, K., & Zimmermann, E. (2005). Game design and Meaningful Play. In J. R. J. Goldstein (ed.), Handbook of computer game studies (pp. 59-79). Cambridge, Massachusetts; london, england: MiT Press.
  62. Schrader, C. (2010). Computerbasierte lernspiele - Stand der Forschung. In S. Ganguin & B. Hoffmann (eds.), digitale Spielkultur. München: Schriftenreihe zur Medienpädagogik.
  63. Schrader, C., & Bastiaens, T. (2009, august). Computer-based educational games - an effective way of learning? Paper presented at the Jure Conference in amsterdam, netherlands.
  64. Schulmeister, R. (2009). Students, internet, elearning and Web 2.0. In M. Ebner & M. Schiefner (eds.), Looking Toward the Future of Technology-Enhanced
  65. Seagram, R., & Amory, A. (2004, June). Designing effective stories for educational games. Paper presented at the World Conference on educational Multimedia, hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004, lugano, Switzerland.
  66. Seel, N. M. (2000). Psychologie des Lernens. München: reinhardt.
  67. Squire, K. (2002). Cultural Framing of Computer/Video Games. GameSudies, 2(1). Retrieved 09.08.2011, from http://www.gamestudies.org/0102/squire/Strittmatter, P. (1993). Schulangstreduktion. Abbau von Angst in schulischen Leistungssituationen. Neuwied: luchterhand.
  68. Sweller, J. (1994). Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty, and instructional design. Learning and Instruction, 4(4), 295-312.
  69. Sweller, J. (1999). Instructional design in technical areas. Camperwell, Vic: aCer Press.
  70. Tapscott, D. (1997). Growing up digital: The rise of the net generation. New York: McGraw-hill.
  71. Trindade, J., Fiolhais, C., & Almeida, L. (2002). Science learning in virtual environments: a descriptive study. British Journal of Educational Technology , 33 (4), 471-488.
  72. Virvou, M., Katsionis, G., & Manos, K. (2005). Combining software games with education: evaluation of its educational effectiveness. Educational Technology & Society, 8(2), 54-65.
  73. Wagner, M. (2009). Eine Theorie des digital Game Based learning retrieved 09.08.2011, from http://gamestudies.typepad.com/game_studies/2009/01/eine-theorie-des-digital-game-based-learning-teil-1-vorbemerkungen-undbegriffsdefinitionen.html
  74. Waxberg, S. L., Schwaitzberg, S. D., & Cao, C. G. L. (2005). Effects of videogame experience on laparoscopic skill acquisition. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 49, 1047-1051.
  75. White, B., & Frederiksen, J. (2005). A Theoretical Framework and approach for Fostering Metacognitive development. Educational Psychologist, 40(4), 211-223.
  76. Whitehill, B. V., & Mcdonald, B. A. (1993). Improving learning persistence of military personnel by enhancing motivation in a technical training program. Simul. Gaming, 24(3), 294-313.
  77. Whitton, N. (2010). Learning with Digital Games: A Practical Guide to Engage Students in Higher Education (1 ed.). New York: routledge.

These references have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake in the references above, please contact info@learntechlib.org.