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Decolonizing Indigenous Web Sites PROCEEDINGS

, , , Idaho State University, United States

E-Learn: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education, in Vancouver, Canada ISBN 978-1-880094-76-1 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Chesapeake, VA


Decolonizing methodologies involves a process of acknowledging that indigenous people have been colonized for the purpose of gaining control, a process which continues into modern times in many forms, sometimes blatant and sometimes subtle (Smith, 1999). Colonizers, having gained control, reluctantly acquiesce. In the 21st century, many forms of media continue to be utilized to subjugate Native Americans (Klug & Whitfield, 2003). This research project found that Wikipedia serves as a global portal for people searching “Aleut” a term applied to the descendants of the original inhabitants of the lower Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. Most Internet search engines direct viewers primarily to Wikipedia’s site on Aleuts. This research project conducted a survey to seek responses from over 400 people registered on Aleut-L (an on line list serve) after viewing Wikipedia. Twenty three people responded. Results indicate a need for a stronger indigenous voice in Aleut instructional sites.


Livingston, M., Strickland, J. & Moulton, S. (2009). Decolonizing Indigenous Web Sites. In T. Bastiaens, J. Dron & C. Xin (Eds.), Proceedings of E-Learn 2009--World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education (pp. 3361-3369). Vancouver, Canada: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved November 15, 2018 from .


View References & Citations Map


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  4. Berreman, G.D. (1953). A contemporary study of Nikolski: An Aleutian village. Portland, OR: University of Oregon.
  5. Berreman, G.D. (2002). Aleut Shamanism in the Twentieth Century? In B. Frohlich, A. Harper, & R. Gilberg, To the Aleutians and Beyond (pp. 25-50). Copenhagen: The National Museum of Denmark.
  6. Carlson, B. (1995). There's no such thing as an Aleut. In R. Spatz (Ed.). Crossroads Alaska: Native Cultures of Alaska and Siberia. Anchorage, AK: Arctic Studies Center.
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  8. Deloria, V. (1988). Custer died for your sins. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
  9. Deloria, V. (1997). Red earth, white lies. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing.
  10. Fortuine, R. (1985). Lancets of stone: Traditional methods of surgery among the Alaska Natives. Arctic Anthropology, 23-45.
  11. Golder, F.A. (1925). Bering’s voyage. NY: American Geographical Society.
  12. Haakanson, S. And Steffian, A. (2004). Ag’inartuq “The Alutiiq Museum’s guidelines for the spiritual care of objects”, Kodiak, AK: Alutiiq Museum& Archaeological Repository.
  13. Hudson, R. (1986). People of the Aleutian Islands. Unalaska, AK: Unalaska City School District.
  14. Hudson, R. (1992). Unugulux Tunusangin: Oldtime stories. Unalaska, AK: Unalaska City School District.
  15. Jones, D. (1969). A study of social and economic problems in Unalasksa: An Aleut village. Berkeley, CA: University of California.
  16. Kawagley, A., & Barnhardt, R. (1999). Education indigenous in place. In G. Smith, & D. Williams, Ecological Education in Action (pp. 117-140). New York: State University of New York Press.
  17. Klug, B.J., & Whitfield, P.T. (2003). Widening the circle. NY: RouteledgeFalmer.
  18. Laughlin, W. (1980). Aleuts: Survivors of the Bering land bridge. NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  19. Maschner, H., Jordan, J., Hoffman, B., & Dochat, T. (1997). The archaeology of the lower Alaska Peninsula. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  20. Shapsnikoff, A.T., & Hudson, R.L. (1973). Aleut basketry. Fairbanks, AK: Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska. 16 (2), 41-69.
  21. Smith, L. (1999). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples. London: Zed Books, Ltd.
  22. Steller, G. (1998). Journal of a voyage with Bering, 1741-1742. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  23. Veltre, D. (1990). Perspectives on Aleut culture change during the Russian period. In B. Smith, & R. Barnett, The Forgotten Frontier (pp. 175-183). Tacoma: Washington State Historical Society.
  24. Veltre, D. (2008, November 10). Aleut-L. Message posted to Aleut-L electronic mailing list, archived at
  25. Veniaminov, I. (1984). Notes of the islands of the Unalaskha district. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska.
  26. Waxell, S. (1962). The Russian expedition to America. NY: Collier Books.

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