You are here:

Gaming, Learning 2.0, and the Digital Divide PROCEEDINGS

, California State University, Dominguez Hills, United States

EdMedia + Innovate Learning, in Honolulu, HI, USA ISBN 978-1-880094-73-0 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Waynesville, NC


Web 2.0 has enabled digital natives to become avid users of communication technologies, social and visual media, as well as gaming. The communities of learners emerging from the use of such technologies are signs of the “emergence of a new form of technology-enhanced learning – Learning 2.0 – which goes beyond providing free access to traditional course materials and educational tools, and creates a participatory architecture for supporting communities of learners.” (Brown & Adler, 2008). This signals a change from passive to active learning. In the age of “digital natives,” the digital divide has multiple meanings and takes on huge importance for a large segment of society. Before students even cross the school’s threshold, socio-economic status, ethnicity, language, and cultural background are central to the division (Kelly, 2008). With gaming, gender becomes central, too. This paper will attempt to delineate the various digital divides and suggest ways to bridge them.


Mach, N. (2009). Gaming, Learning 2.0, and the Digital Divide. In G. Siemens & C. Fulford (Eds.), Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2009--World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications (pp. 2972-2977). Honolulu, HI, USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved November 14, 2018 from .


View References & Citations Map


  1. Besser, H. (2001) The next digital divides. Teaching to change L.A.: Experts on the digital divides. Retrieved April 30, 2009, from
  2. Borthwick, A., Hansen, R., Gray, L., & Ziemann, I. (2008). Exploring essential conditions: A commentary on Bullet al. (2008). Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education.8(3). Retrieved from Brown, J.S., & Adler, R.P. (2008, January/February). Minds on fire: Open education, the long tail and learning 2.0. EDUCAUSE Review. 43(1):16-32. Retrieved from
  3. International Society for Technology in Education. (2008). ISTE NETS for teachers. Http://
  4. Jenkins, H. (2006). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century (part 2). Retrieved from
  5. Kelly, M.A. (2008). Bridging digital and cultural divides: TCPK for equity of access to technology. In Handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TCPK) for educators (pp. 31-58).
  6. Kellner, D. (2002). New media and new literacies: Reconstructing education for the new millennium. Handbook of new media: Social shaping and consequences of ICTs. Eds. L.A. Lievrouw & S. Livingstone. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  7. Koehler, M.J., & Mishra, P. (2008). Introducing TPCK. In Handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TCPK) for educators (pp. 3-29). New York: Routledge.
  8. Norris, P. (2004). The digital divide. The Information Society Reader, Ed. F. Webster. New York: Routledge, 273-86.
  9. Nussbaum, M. (2007) Games, learning, collaboration and cognitive divide. OECD-CERI expert meeting on videogames and education.
  10. Papert, S. (1999). Diversity in learning: A Vision for the new millennium. Speech for Al Gore’s Diversity Task Force. Retrieved from
  11. Papert, S. (2008). Seymour Papert: Project-based learning. Edutopia. Retrieved from Papert, S. (2008). Technology in schools: To support the system or render it obsolete. The Millken Family Foundation. Retrieved from
  12. Papert, S. (1999). Vision for education: The Caperton-Papert platform. For the 91st annual National Governors’ association meeting in St. Louis, August, 1999. Retrieved from,M.(2005).Thedigitaldivideanditsdiscontents.Currentsinelectronicliteracy,issue9.Retrievedfrom
  13. Prensky, M. (2009). H. Sapiens digital: from digital immigrants and digital natives to digital wisdom. Journal of Online Education. (5)3, February/March 2009. Retrieved from & Id=705 & Action=login
  14. Prensky, M. (2008, February). Programming: The new literacy. Edutopia. Retrieved September 27, 2008 from Prensky, M. (2001d). Types of learning and possible game styles. Chart from Digital game-based learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  15. Trotter, A. (2007). Ed. Tech. Experts tackle the question: Is there still a technological divide between the haves and the have-nots? Digital Directions, Education Week, Sept. 12. 2007. Retrieved from

These references have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake in the references above, please contact