You are here:

Teaching for Application: A Model for Assisting Pre-Service Teachers With Technology Integration ARTICLE

, Auburn University, United States ; , University of Oklahoma, United States ; , Indiana University, United States

Journal of Technology and Teacher Education Volume 18, Number 1, ISSN 1059-7069 Publisher: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education, Waynesville, NC USA


The purpose of this paper is to introduce a technology integration model designed to assist pre-service teachers to learn meaningful uses of technology in K–12 classrooms. Based on studies in teacher education, learning theory, and technology integration, the authors define five essential characteristics necessary for pre-service teacher education: (a) providing concrete experience, (b) promoting reflection, (c) assisting knowledge application to actual practice, (d) creating communities of learners, and (e) developing Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) (Mishra & Koehler, 2006; Thompson & Mishra, 2007-2008). The Situated Technology Integration (SiTI) model was developed based on these characteristics. This paper explains the SiTI model in detail and shares data on its implementation processes.


Hur, J.W., Cullen, T. & Brush, T. (2010). Teaching for Application: A Model for Assisting Pre-Service Teachers With Technology Integration. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 18(1), 161-182. Waynesville, NC USA: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education. Retrieved March 17, 2018 from .



  1. Dexter, S., Doering, A. H., & Riedel, E. (2006). Content area specific technology integration: a model for educating teachers. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14(2), 325–345.
  2. Doering, A., Hughes, J., & Huffman, D. (2003). Preservice teachers: are we thinking with technology? Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 35(3), 342–361.
  3. Ertmer, P. (2005). Teacher pedagogical beliefs: The final frontier in our quest for technology integration? Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 25–39.
  4. Goldman, S. R. (2001). Professional development in a digital age: Issues and challenges for standards-based reform. Interactive Educational Multimedia, 2, 19–46.
  5. Howard, J. (2002). Technology-enhanced project based learning in teacher education: addressing the goals of transfer. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 10(3), 343–364.
  6. Kariuki, M., & Duran, M. (2004). Using anchored instruction to teacher preservice teachers to integrate technology in the curriculum. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 12(3), 431–445.
  7. Korthagen, F. A. J., & Kessels, J. P. M. (1999). Linking theory and practice: Changing the pedagogy of teacher education. Educational Researcher, 28(4), 4–17.
  8. Kozma, R. B. (2003). Technology and classroom practices: an international study. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 36(1), 1–14. Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology (2nd ed.). Thousand oaks, Ca: sage Publications.
  9. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. New York: Cambridge university Press.
  10. Li, Q. (2005). Infusing technology into a mathematics methods course: any impact? Educational Research, 47(2), 217–233.
  11. Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: a framework for teacher knowledge. Teacher College Record, 108(6), 1017–1054.
  12. National Center for education statistics (2002). Technology in schools: suggestions, tools and guidelines for assessing technology in elementary and secondary education. Retrieved January 17, 2008 from
  13. Office of Technology assessment (1995). Teachers and technology: Making the connection. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing office.
  14. Parana, J., West, A., Johnson-gentile, K. & Longerger, R. (2000). Preparing preservice teachers for the technological classroom: a school—college partnership. Technology and Teacher Education, 8(2), 97-109.
  15. Perry, G., & Talley, S. (2001). Online video case studies and teacher education. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 17(4), 26–31.
  16. Pierson, M. E., & Mcneil, S. (2000). Preservice technology integration through collaborative action communities. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 1(1), 189–199.
  17. Pope, M., Hare, D., & Howard, E. (2002). Technology integration: Closing the gap between what preservice teachers are taught to do and what they can do. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 10(2), 191–203.
  18. Sadera, W. A., & Hargrave, C. P. (2005). Conceptual change in pre-service teacher technology preparation. In C. Varsidas & G. V. Glass (eds.), Preparing teachers to teach with technology. Greenwich, Co: Information age Publishing Inc.
  19. Sherry, L., & Chiero, R. (2004). Project TalenT: Infusing technology in K–12 field placements through a learning community model. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 12(2), 265–297.
  20. Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4–14.
  21. Thompson, A. & Mishra, P. (2007-2008). Breaking news: TPCK becomes TPaCK. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 24(2), 38-39.
  22. U.S. Department of education. (2004). Toward a new golden age in American education. How the internet, the law and today’s students are revolutionizing expectations. Retrieved February 8, 2008 from
  23. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. New York: Cambridge university Press.
  24. Zeichner, K. M., & Liston, D. P. (1987). Teaching student teachers to reflect. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 23–48.

These references have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake in the references above, please contact