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Giving, prompting, making: Framing a conceptual home for TPACK in social studies instruction

, Lehigh University, United States ; , Old Dominion University, United States

CITE Journal Volume 9, Number 2, ISSN 1528-5804 Publisher: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education, Waynesville, NC USA


Technological pedagogical content knowledge (now known as technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge, or TPACK) has become a widely referenced conceptual framework within teacher education. It provides a common language to discuss the integration of technology into instruction (Koehler & Mishra, 2008) and builds upon the concepts of pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1987) and teacher as curricular “gatekeeper” (Thornton, 2001a, 2001b). This paper describes a three-part pedagogical model—giving-prompting-making—to explicate the relationship between pedagogy and technology within the social studies classroom. This model is intended to enhance the TPACK framework by providing a clear and intuitive comparison between social studies teachers’ pedagogical aims and their choices with technology. The giving-prompting-making model can be used to guide social studies teacher education students to make the most appropriate use of technology.


Hammond, T. & Manfra, M. (2009). Giving, prompting, making: Framing a conceptual home for TPACK in social studies instruction. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(2), 160-185. Waynesville, NC USA: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education. Retrieved May 17, 2022 from .


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