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The R2D2 Model for Effective Online Teaching and Enjoyable Online Learning

, Wayne State University, United States ; , Indiana University, United States

E-Learn: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education, in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA ISBN 978-1-880094-60-0 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), San Diego, CA


The R2D2 model—read, reflect, display, and do—is a new model for designing and delivering online learning. Such a model is especially important to address the diverse preferences of online learners of varied generations and Internet familiarity. The four components can be utilized either separately or integrated as a problem solving process. The first quadrant primarily focuses on knowledge acquisition through online readings, explorations, listening to online lectures, and podcasting. The second component of the model promotes learning through reflective activities such as online blogs, reflective writing tasks, self-check examinations, and electronic portfolios. In the third quadrant, visual representations of the content is highlighted with techniques such as virtual tours, timelines, animations, and concept maps. Fourth, the model emphasizes what learners can do with the content in hands-on activities including simulations, scenarios, and real-time cases. When thoughtfully designed, content delivered from this perspective should be more engaging and enriching for learners.


Zhang, K. & Bonk, C.J. (2006). The R2D2 Model for Effective Online Teaching and Enjoyable Online Learning. In T. Reeves & S. Yamashita (Eds.), Proceedings of E-Learn 2006--World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education (pp. 1547-1553). Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved January 16, 2019 from .


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