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The R2D2 Model of Online Instruction: A Mapping Out of the Components

, Indiana University, Bloomington, United States ; , Texas Tech University, United States

EdMedia + Innovate Learning, in Orlando, FL USA ISBN 978-1-880094-60-0 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Waynesville, NC


R2D2 method—read, reflect, display, and do—is a new model for designing and delivery distance education, and, in particular, online learning. Such a model is especially important to address the diverse preferences of online learners of varied generations and Internet familiarity. The first component primarily relates to methods to help learners acquire knowledge through online readings, explorations, and podcasting. As such, it addresses verbal and auditory learners. The second component of the model focuses on reflective activities such as online blogs, reflective writing, and exams. In the third quadrant, visual representations of the content is highlighted virtual tours, timelines, animations, and concept maps. Fourth, the model emphasizes what learners can do with the content in hands-on activities including simulations, scenarios, and real-time cases. When thoughtfully designed, content delivered from the R2D2 perspective should be more engaging and enriching for learners.


Bonk, C.J. & Zhang, K. (2006). The R2D2 Model of Online Instruction: A Mapping Out of the Components. In E. Pearson & P. Bohman (Eds.), Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2006--World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications (pp. 2010-2015). Orlando, FL USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved January 17, 2019 from .


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