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Education inequality in Mongolia: Measurement and causes

, National University of Mongolia, Mongolia ; , Statistics and Monitoring Specialist, UNICEF, United States ; , Economic Research Institute of Mongolia, Mongolia

International Journal of Educational Development Volume 68, Number 1, ISSN 0738-0593 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


Using data from the LSMS 2002 and HSES 2012 in Mongolia, we have estimated the educational Gini coefficients by years of schooling for adults and by school attendance rate for children. The Gini coefficient measured by using years of schooling for the population aged 19 and above decreased from 0.274 in 2002 to 0.178 in 2012. For adults of both genders, educational inequality has declined while the Gini coefficients are consistently higher in rural areas than in urban areas in both periods.The Gini coefficient for children aged 2–18 years and currently attending school has also declined. Between 2002 and 2012, the educational Gini coefficient for preschool decreased from 0.307 to 0.233 and for primary from 0.422 to 0.388. For secondary education, the Gini coefficient decreased from 0.388 in 2002 to 0.201 in 2012. For high school level, the coefficient decreased also from 0.299 in 2002 to 0.254 in 2012. The distribution in higher education remains at the similar level of 0.491. For all levels of education, except for higher education, the distribution is getting closer to the perfect equality line on the education Lorenz curve.Finally, we have shown that child’s age, gender, mother’s and father’s education, household size and income, and urban location are statistically significant determinants of children’s school attendance and thus educational equality. The pooled estimates using probit model indicate that the reduction in inequality due to household income and location are major factors which led to lower Gini Coefficient in 2012.


Banzragch, O., Mizunoya, S. & Bayarjargal, M. (2019). Education inequality in Mongolia: Measurement and causes. International Journal of Educational Development, 68(1), 68-79. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved November 26, 2022 from .

This record was imported from International Journal of Educational Development on June 3, 2019. International Journal of Educational Development is a publication of Elsevier.

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