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Gender ratios at top PhD programs in economics

, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, United States ; , Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) Herzliya, Israel

Economics of Education Review Volume 41, Number 1, ISSN 0272-7757 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


Analyzing university faculty and graduate students data for ten of the top U.S. economics departments between 1987 and 2007, we find persistent differences in the gender compositions of both faculty and graduate students across departments. There is a positive correlation between the share of female faculty and the share of women in the PhD class graduating six years later. Using instrumental variable analysis, we find robust evidence that this relation is causal. These results contribute to our understanding of the persistent under-representation of women in economics, as well as for the persistent segregation of women in the labor force.


Hale, G. & Regev, T. (2014). Gender ratios at top PhD programs in economics. Economics of Education Review, 41(1), 55-70. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved July 6, 2022 from .

This record was imported from Economics of Education Review on March 1, 2019. Economics of Education Review is a publication of Elsevier.

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