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The effect of effort grading on learning

Economics of Education Review Volume 29, Number 6 ISSN 0272-7757 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


In the fall of 2004, Benedict College – a Historically Black College in Columbia, SC – began enforcing a new grading policy called Success Equals Effort (SE2). Under this policy, students taking freshman and sophomore level courses were assigned grades that explicitly rewarded not only content learning (“knowledge” grade) but also measures of effort (“effort” grade). This paper examines the effects of effort grading using two stage least squares and fixed effect estimates. I find evidence of a strong positive correlation between “effort” grades and “knowledge” grades. Under some restrictions this relationship can be interpreted as “effort” producing “knowledge”.


Swinton, O.H. The effect of effort grading on learning. Economics of Education Review, 29(6), 1176-1182. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved March 26, 2019 from .

This record was imported from Economics of Education Review on March 1, 2019. Economics of Education Review is a publication of Elsevier.

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