Cognitive-linguistic skills and motivation as longitudinal predictors of reading and arithmetic achievement: A follow-up study from kindergarten to grade 2
International Journal of Educational Research Volume 43, Number 4 ISSN 0883-0355 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
This 3-year longitudinal study examined how motivational tendencies, that is, task orientation and social dependence orientation, as well as cognitive-linguistic prerequisites of reading and math skills (i.e., phonological awareness, rapid naming, oral language comprehension skills, number sequence and basic arithmetic skills) measured in kindergarten (5–6 years), in preschool (6–7 years), and in grade 1, predict decoding, reading comprehension and arithmetic achievement in grade 2. Moreover, the motivational-developmental profiles of children with prospective learning difficulties were compared to the profiles of averagely achieving children. The participants were 139 Finnish-speaking children. Results from regression analyses showed that rapid naming was a unique longitudinal predictor of later decoding skills. Oral comprehension skills accounted for a unique variance in reading comprehension at every time point examined. Motivational orientations started to make unique contributions to subsequent decoding accuracy, reading comprehension and arithmetic from preschool onwards, over and above the effects of prior linguistic and math skills. High task orientation was beneficial for beginning reading, whereas high social dependence orientation was detrimental for reading comprehension and arithmetic. Students who fell behind of others both in reading comprehension and arithmetic experienced the most unfavourable development of motivation already during the first term in grade 1. Implications for instructional practices are discussed.
Lepola, J., Niemi, P., Kuikka, M. & Hannula, M.M. Cognitive-linguistic skills and motivation as longitudinal predictors of reading and arithmetic achievement: A follow-up study from kindergarten to grade 2. International Journal of Educational Research, 43(4), 250-271. Elsevier Ltd.