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The effects of feedback protocol on self-regulated learning in a web-based worked example learning environment


Computers & Education Volume 55, Number 4 ISSN 0360-1315 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


The current research investigated the effects of differing feedback protocols in a Web-based worked example learning environment to determine if changes would occur over time in goal orientation, self-regulation, self-efficacy or achievement. Participants from an undergraduate chemistry course were assigned to either a norm-referenced or self-referenced feedback group to receive feedback in relation to their performance on a weekly quiz administered via the Web. Results revealed that participants did not significantly change their goal orientation type or magnitude as a result of the differing feedback protocols, even with the addition of learning environment perception as a potential mediating variable. However, participants made significant decreases along the mastery approach and performance approach goal orientation sub-scales, regardless of the type of feedback received. While this was not anticipated, the results are consistent with other recent research within this context. An unanticipated trend also emerged, as those from the norm-referenced feedback group with a class-task perception of the learning environment were less likely to use worked examples but also demonstrated the greatest gains in self-efficacy. These were unanticipated outcomes and contrary to prior research. Recommendations for future research within this context such as authenticating participants’ perceptions of their assigned treatment condition, introducing additional feedback protocols such as a combined, choice, or control condition and building in a better gauge to track the time and context of changes within the constructs of interest are also discussed.


Biesinger, K. & Crippen, K. The effects of feedback protocol on self-regulated learning in a web-based worked example learning environment. Computers & Education, 55(4), 1470-1482. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved April 11, 2021 from .

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