Implementing a theory-driven gamification model in higher education flipped courses: Effects on out-of-class activity completion and quality of artifacts
Computers & Education Volume 125, Number 1, ISSN 0360-1315 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Flipped learning can provide more in-class time for students to practice and apply knowledge and to receive feedback from peers and teachers. However, empirical studies have reported several problems that may occur with flipped classroom activities, including the failure of students to access out-of-class learning materials. Students who do not complete out-of-class work benefit little from the subsequent in-class discussion and problem-solving activities. This study offers a new contribution by exploring whether gamification could be a strategy to motivate students to participate in more out-of-class activities without forfeiting quality of work. We applied crucial aspects of five motivation theories to propose a goal-access-feedback-challenge-collaboration (GAFCC) gamification design model. We then implemented and tested this theory-driven model in two quasi-experimental studies involving postgraduate students. Collective results from the two experiments revealed that (a) the GAFCC class completed significantly more pre- and post-class activities than the control class and (b) the GAFCC class produced higher quality work than the control class. Participants’ perceptions of gamification were also collected through interviews, and reported in this study. This evidence supports a call for further research into the use of the GAFCC model in flipped classroom implementation.
Huang, B. & Hew, K.F. (2018). Implementing a theory-driven gamification model in higher education flipped courses: Effects on out-of-class activity completion and quality of artifacts. Computers & Education, 125(1), 254-272. Elsevier Ltd.