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Is disfluency desirable for learning?


Learning and Instruction Volume 49, Number 1, ISSN 0959-4752 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


While some difficult learning conditions can improve learning, the findings regarding the contribution to learning of disfluent, hard-to-read text materials have been inconsistent. We identified test delay and disfluency manipulations as factors potentially contributing to these discrepancies. We tested students' immediate and delayed memory performance (2 weeks later) on a course text that was presented between-subjects (


Weissgerber, S.C. & Reinhard, M.A. (2017). Is disfluency desirable for learning?. Learning and Instruction, 49(1), 199-217. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved May 28, 2023 from .

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