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Letter knowledge predicts Grade 4 reading fluency and reading comprehension

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Learning and Instruction Volume 18, Number 6 ISSN 0959-4752 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


The present study examined the predictors of fourth graders' reading skills (reading comprehension, text reading and word chain reading). Reading skill antecedents of 158 children of 5–6 years of age were measured at the beginning of kindergarten; students' reading skills were measured in kindergarten and in Grades 1 and 4. The results showed that children's letter knowledge at the beginning of kindergarten was the most powerful predictor of their reading skills at the end of Grade 4. Other predictors were metacognitive awareness, gender, mother's level of education, and visual attention. Phonological awareness at kindergarten affected reading skills at Grade 4 through reading skills in kindergarten and Grade 1.


Leppänen, U., Aunola, K., Niemi, P. & Nurmi, J.E. Letter knowledge predicts Grade 4 reading fluency and reading comprehension. Learning and Instruction, 18(6), 548-564. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved May 19, 2021 from .

This record was imported from Learning and Instruction on January 29, 2019. Learning and Instruction is a publication of Elsevier.

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