Predictive and concurrent relations between literacy skills in Grades 1 and 3: A longitudinal study of Italian children
Learning and Instruction Volume 22, Number 5, ISSN 0959-4752 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
A sample of 170 Italian children was assessed for reading accuracy, reading speed, text comprehension and spelling in Grades 1 and 3 in order to investigate the concurrent and longitudinal relationships among literacy skills. Main results from multivariate analyses (regression, discriminant and path analyses) indicated that reading speed was the best predictor of later literacy and that spelling was the most stable measure and influenced text comprehension and reading speed. An asymmetry was also observed in the longitudinal relationship between reading and spelling errors, with reading errors predicting later spelling errors and a non-significant result in the opposite direction.
Desimoni, M., Scalisi, T.G. & Orsolini, M. (2012). Predictive and concurrent relations between literacy skills in Grades 1 and 3: A longitudinal study of Italian children. Learning and Instruction, 22(5), 340-353. Elsevier Ltd.