Early development of quantity to number-word linkage as a precursor of mathematical school achievement and mathematical difficulties: Findings from a four-year longitudinal study
Learning and Instruction Volume 19, Number 6, ISSN 0959-4752 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
This article reports results of a four-year longitudinal study that investigated the impact of specific and non-specific precursors on mathematical school achievement. Preschool quantity-number competencies (QNC) predicted mathematical achievement in primary school. Furthermore, basic arithmetic fact retrieval in Grade 1 had an impact on early mathematics school achievement. The influence of socioeconomic status and number naming speed, assessed in kindergarten, became especially important at the end of Grade 4. Particularly, a subgroup of mathematically low-achieving children in Grade 4 had already performed more poorly than normal children in tasks assessing preschool QNC, number naming speed, and basic arithmetic fact retrieval, as well as nonverbal intelligence and socioeconomic status.
Krajewski, K. & Schneider, W. (2009). Early development of quantity to number-word linkage as a precursor of mathematical school achievement and mathematical difficulties: Findings from a four-year longitudinal study. Learning and Instruction, 19(6), 513-526. Elsevier Ltd.