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Structural Barriers and Organizational Mechanisms for Training and Deploying ICT Champions in a School

Educational Technology Research and Development Volume 64, Number 4, ISSN 1042-1629


The misalignment or contradiction between material and abstract resources within a school are structural barriers to systemic pedagogic innovation and effective teacher professional development. This article contributes a case study to the success stories of information and communication technology (ICT) integration in schools through alternative professional development approaches. The case describes three, designed social interaction practices, or mechanisms, to facilitate ICT champion training and teacher learning about technology at a private international school in Singapore. It explores the complex interplay between each mechanism and temporal, curricular and financial barriers. Data were collected by interviews with the primary facilitator of these ICT champion mechanisms and triangulated by subsequent interviews with selected school stakeholders, observations of selected ICT champion mechanisms, and school documents and artifacts from these mechanisms. Iterative coding of the qualitative data for professional development mechanisms identified the prominence of the three ICT champion mechanisms and then the impact of temporal, curricular and financial constraints on these mechanisms' designs, and their effectiveness. Mechanisms were effective when they repurposed existing stakeholder time for champion training and teacher learning, and when they did not compete with other mechanisms for stakeholder time. Mechanisms addressed curricular barriers by targeting the appropriate level and unit of curriculum for technology integration and by coupling with other school mechanisms to determine these. The mechanisms also did not harm the existing financial structure in the school but repurposed finances for new roles and relied on other incentives to recruit and retain champions.


Woo, D.J. (2016). Structural Barriers and Organizational Mechanisms for Training and Deploying ICT Champions in a School. Educational Technology Research and Development, 64(4), 839-855. Retrieved February 6, 2023 from .

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