Reflections on Andes' Goal-Free User Interface
IJAIE Volume 26, Number 1, ISSN 1560-4292
Although the Andes project produced many results over its 18 years of activity, this commentary focuses on its contributions to understanding how a goal-free user interface impacts the overall design and performance of a step-based tutoring system. Whereas a goal-aligned user interface displays relevant goals as blank boxes or empty locations that the student needs to fill with specific content, a goal-free user interface is essentially a blank canvas, with no visual indications of the goals that should be attempted next. This commentary also briefly mentions work that occurred after the "final" report on Andes appeared in this journal in 2005. The newer work focused on getting students to ask for hints when they need them.
VanLehn, K. (2016). Reflections on Andes' Goal-Free User Interface. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 26(1), 82-90.