You are here:

Online Learning Self-Efficacy in Students with and without Online Learning Experience


American Journal of Distance Education Volume 30, Number 3, ISSN 0892-3647


A need was identified for an instrument to measure online learning self-efficacy, which encompassed the wide variety of tasks required of successful online students. The Online Learning Self-Efficacy Scale (OLSES) was designed to include tasks required of students enrolled in paced online courses at one university. In the present study, the twenty-two-item scale was completed by 338 postsecondary students with and without online learning experience. Separate principal components analyses were performed using data collected from participants who had and had not completed an online course. The results were similar for the two groups. A three-subscale structure was selected for use with all individuals. The three subscales represent items concerning (1) learning in the online environment; (2) time management; and (3) technology use. The reliability and validity of scores on the OLSES was explored through group comparisons and correlations. Suggestions for the use of the instrument with other populations are discussed.


Zimmerman, W.A. & Kulikowich, J.M. (2016). Online Learning Self-Efficacy in Students with and without Online Learning Experience. American Journal of Distance Education, 30(3), 180-191. Retrieved July 29, 2021 from .

This record was imported from ERIC on February 24, 2017. [Original Record]

ERIC is sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) of the U.S. Department of Education.

Copyright for this record is held by the content creator. For more details see ERIC's copyright policy.


Cited By

View References & Citations Map

These links are based on references which have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake, please contact