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Proposing an Educational Scaling-and-Diffusion Model for Inquiry-Based Learning Designs


Educational Technology Volume 55, Number 1, ISSN 0013-1962


Education cannot adopt the linear model of scaling used by the medical sciences. "Gold standards" cannot be replicated without considering process-in-learning, diversity, and student-variedness in classrooms. This article proposes a nuanced model of educational scaling-and-diffusion, describing the scaling (top-down supports) and diffusion efforts (bottom-up innovations from teachers and schools) in Singapore's education landscape. For educational innovations that focus on explicit knowledge, scaling is mechanistic ("roll-outs"), while inquiry-based learning designs are connoted as organic ("diffusion of innovation"). Inquiry-based learning designs focus more on process rather than content dissemination, although content and process are intertwined. Roll-outs are generally sound when disseminating content as products, and in the haste of implementation, we inherently partake in the fallacy that process abilities can likewise be taught as content.


Hung, D. & Lee, S.S. (2015). Proposing an Educational Scaling-and-Diffusion Model for Inquiry-Based Learning Designs. Educational Technology, 55(1), 27-33. Retrieved March 2, 2021 from .

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