You are here:

Why Is Externally-Facilitated Regulated Learning More Effective than Self-Regulated Learning with Hypermedia?

, , , ,

Educational Technology Research and Development Volume 56, Number 1, ISSN 1042-1629


We examined how self-regulated learning (SRL) and externally-facilitated self-regulated learning (ERL) differentially affected adolescents' learning about the circulatory system while using hypermedia. A total of 128 middle-school and high school students with little prior knowledge of the topic were randomly assigned to either the SRL or ERL condition. Learners in the SRL condition regulated their own learning, while learners in the ERL condition had access to a human tutor who facilitated their self-regulated learning. We converged "product" (pretest-posttest shifts in students' mental models and declarative knowledge measures) with "process" (think-aloud protocols) data to examine the effectiveness of self- versus externally-facilitated regulated learning. Findings revealed that learners in the ERL condition gained statistically significantly more declarative knowledge and that a greater number of participants in this condition displayed a more advanced mental model on the posttest. Verbal protocol data indicated that learners in the ERL condition regulated their learning by activating prior knowledge, engaging in several monitoring activities, deploying several effective strategies, and engaging in adaptive help-seeking. By contrast, learners in the SRL condition used ineffective strategies and engaged in fewer monitoring activities. Based on these findings, we present design principles for adaptive hypermedia learning environments, engineered to foster students' self-regulated learning about complex and challenging science topics.


Azevedo, R., Moos, D.C., Greene, J.A., Winters, F.I. & Cromley, J.G. (2008). Why Is Externally-Facilitated Regulated Learning More Effective than Self-Regulated Learning with Hypermedia?. Educational Technology Research and Development, 56(1), 45-72. Retrieved December 9, 2019 from .

This record was imported from ERIC on December 3, 2015. [Original Record]

ERIC is sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) of the U.S. Department of Education.

Copyright for this record is held by the content creator. For more details see ERIC's copyright policy.


Cited By

View References & Citations Map

These links are based on references which have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake, please contact