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Students' Perceptions of Self-Directed Learning and Collaborative Learning with and without Technology

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Journal of Computer Assisted Learning Volume 30, Number 5, ISSN 0266-4909


This study explored students' perceptions of self-directed learning (SDL) and collaborative learning (CL) with/without technology in an information and communications technology-supported classroom environment. The factors include SDL, CL, SDL supported by technology, and CL supported by technology. Based on the literature review, this study hypothesized that students' perceptions of learning without technology positively predict their perceptions of learning supported by technology. An instrument was developed and two studies, a pilot study and a main study, were undertaken. The pilot study surveyed 219 secondary school students and established the factors through exploratory factor analysis with good validity and reliability. The main study surveyed 500 secondary school students to confirm the factors and to establish the relationships between these factors through structural equation modeling. The results validated the four-factor structure model and revealed that students who reportedly engaged in SDL and CL in face-to-face contexts also engaged in these forms of learning in technology-supported contexts. The findings indicate that students' learning without technology support is related to their use of technology for learning. It may be advisable for teachers to develop students' learning processes in the face-to-face context without technology before engaging them in technology-supported learning.


Lee, K., Tsai, P.S., Chai, C.S. & Koh, J.H.L. (2014). Students' Perceptions of Self-Directed Learning and Collaborative Learning with and without Technology. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 30(5), 425-437. Retrieved August 13, 2020 from .

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