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Handbook of Research on K-12 Online and Blended Learning

, Research Center for Educational Technology, Kent State University, United States ; , MVU, Michigan Virtual Learning Research Institute, United States

Published . ISBN 978-1-3125-8708-3 Publisher: ETC Press.


The Handbook of Research on K-12 Online and Blended Learning is an edited collection of chapters that sets out to present the current state of research in K-12 online and blended learning. The beginning chapters lay the groundwork of the historical, international, and political landscape as well as present the scope of research methodologies used. Subsequent sections share a synthesis of theoretical and empirical work describing where we have been, what we currently know, and where we hope to go with research in the areas of learning and learners, content domains, teaching, the role of the other, and technological innovations. This volume attempts to synthesize existing research; in doing so, it will act as an important resource for those interested in this topic. However, there are always new studies, concepts, and domains within K-12 online and blended learning. Therefore, we ask readers to think of this work not as a completed product but rather a flowing conversation. Each section includes potential new areas for growth in understanding practice, policy, and research. We encourage authors to contact us at handbookresearch (at) gmail (dot) com to propose missing research studies for certain chapters or for proposals on new chapters for future volumes. We look forward to hearing from readers and continuing this important conversation regarding K-12 online and blended learning research.


Ferdig, R.E. & Kennedy, K. (2014). Handbook of Research on K-12 Online and Blended Learning. ETC Press. Retrieved September 24, 2023 from .

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  1. A History of K-12 Online and Blended Instruction in the United States 1
    John Watson & Amy Murin
  2. History of K-12 Online and Blended Instruction Worldwide 25
    Michael K. Barbour
  3. Research and History of Policies in K-12 Online and Blended Learning 51
    Kerry Rice
  4. A Brief Look at the Methodologies Used in the Research on Online Teaching and Learning 83
    Susan Lowes

Research on Learning and Learners

  1. Research on At-Risk Learners in K-12 Online Learning 107
    Jeanne B. Repetto & Carrie J. Spitler
  2. Reviewing a Decade (2004-2014) of Published, Peer-Reviewed Research on Online Learning and Students with Disabilities 135
    Diana Greer, Mary Rice, & Bryan Dykman
  3. K-12 Learning in Content Domains Few in Number: Research on Mathematical Teaching and Learning in the Online Setting 163
    Karl W. Kosko, Lauren Sobolewski-McMahon, & Md Amiruzzaman
  4. Research on Literacy Instruction and Learning in Virtual, Blended, and Hybrid Environments 179
    Kristine E. Pytash & W. Ian O’Byrne
  5. Research on Teaching Blended and Online Physical Education 201
    David N. Daum & Craig Buschner

Research on Teaching

  1. Teacher Preparation for K-12 Online and Blended Learning 225
    Leanna Archambault & Kathryn Kennedy
  2. Professional Development for K-12 Online Teachers 245
    Kara Dawson & Nancy Fichtman Dana
  3. Mentoring for Online Teachers 267
    Kara Dawson & Nancy Fichtman Dana

Research on the Role of the Other

  1. School Administrators and K-12 Online and Blended Learning 285
    Scott McLeod & Jayson W. Richardson
  2. Parental Involvement in K-12 Online and Blended Learning 303
    Lisa Hasler Waters, Michael P. Menchaca, & Jered Borup
  3. On-site and Online Facilitators: Current and Future Direction for Research 325
    Jered Borup & Jeff S. Drysdale
  4. The Role of the School Psychologist in K-12 Online & Blended Learning 347
    P. Dawn Tysinger, Jeffrey A. Tysinger, & Terry Diamanduros
  5. K-12 Online and Blended Learning, School Libraries, and School Librarians 365
    Brenda Boyer & Rebecca Kelly

Research on Technological Innovations

  1. K-12 Mobile Learning 391
    Cathy Cavanaugh, Dorit Maor, & Aidan McCarthy
  2. Open Learning in K-12 Online and Blended Learning Environments 447
    Lee Graham, Randy LaBonte, Verena Roberts, Ian O’Byrne, & Colin Osterhout Personal Learning Environments in K-12 Wendy Drexler