Instructional Design Considerations in Telewriter Applications to Distance Education
This paper describes an audio teleconferencing system enhanced with a microcomputer-based telewriting system and examines its application in the delivery of university courses in statistics, microcomputer applications in special education, nursing issues, introductory writing, and staff development for teachers. The actual application of the technology in these courses is examined in order to demonstrate the versatility of the technology and the range of instructional designs possible with the telewriter. Instructional strategies used in the courses are described and the interrelationship between instructional strategies and subject matter is explored in each case. In conclusion, the paper notes the following instructional issues arising from the experiences described: (1) using the telewriter requires considerable advance preparation; (2) instructors found effective new ways to use the telewriter in distance delivery; (3) the best interaction occurred when students were able to use the technology actively as a tool to promote their participation; (4) since students were intimidated by the equipment, the simplest ways of responding (pen and pad, typing with keyboard) were best; (5) perceived advantages of the telewriter include its capacity to transmit symbolic content (math formulae); (6) the instructional effectiveness of the technology varies according to the nature of the subject matter; and (7) instructors felt that the care and attention required to offer a course using the telewriter improved the quality of instruction. (3 references) (GL)
Shale, D. & Garrison, D.R. Instructional Design Considerations in Telewriter Applications to Distance Education.