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The effects of auditory or visual feedback on the development of cardiopulmonary resuscitation psychomotor skills using a sensorized manikin

, University of Pittsburgh, United States

University of Pittsburgh . Awarded


Background. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a life skill that requires proper psychomotor skill development. It is a key component in the Concept of the “Chain of Survival”. Training in CPR has been advocated since 1974 with subsequent courses and training programs. Like many programs, the curricula tend to be instructor centered, few, if any of the curricula have addressed the issue of learning styles. There is a significant amount of literature describing the lack of success in the acquisition and retention of skills. Several investigations have demonstrated that this system may improve CPR delivery and skill retention. Individuals vary in their ability to perceive, organize, store, process, understand, and use information. These differences are known as cognitive styles.

Methods. This project used an experimental design with an aptitude (learning style) treatment (feedback) interaction design. In this study two factors used in the analysis of variance. Subjects were administered the Group Embedded Figures Test to determine their level of field dependence. Groups were then randomized to receive feedback on skill performance. Following initial instruction subjects were asked to complete a three-minute bout of CPR each week for four weeks, using their assigned method of feedback. At the conclusion of the fourth week, subjects were tested without feedback. Performance measures were rate of compressions, mean depth of compressions, percentage of correct compressions, and percentage of correct ventilations.

Results. No significant interaction was found between learning style and method of feedback for any of the variables. No main effect was noted for any of the variables and learning style. A main effect was noted for method of feedback relative to the percentage of correct compressions and the percentage of correct ventilations. Both the computer auditory and computer visual groups achieved a greater percentage of correct compressions than instructor driven feedback. For the percentage of correct ventilations, computer auditory feedback resulted in a high percentage of correct ventilations compared to instructor driven feedback.

Conclusions. Computer feedback has been demonstrated to enhance student performance, irrespective of learning style. Enhanced performance has a clinical significance.


Platt, T.E. The effects of auditory or visual feedback on the development of cardiopulmonary resuscitation psychomotor skills using a sensorized manikin. Ph.D. thesis, University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved April 25, 2019 from .

This record was imported from ProQuest on October 23, 2013. [Original Record]

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