Scaffolding preservice teachers' learning in contrasting video case analysis activities
Anandi Nagarajan, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick, United States
Rutgers The State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick . Awarded
Video cases can serve as valuable instructional tools for preservice teachers by presenting examples of effective and ineffective student learning and pedagogical practices, thereby bridging the gap between theoretical principles learned in teacher-education courses and what goes in actual classroom contexts (Cannings & Talley, 2002). However, effective video case analysis requires one to identify relevant aspects of teaching situations, use contextual knowledge, and connect specific classroom interactions with conceptual principles of teaching and learning (van Es & Sherin, 2002); something that doesn't come spontaneously even to experienced teachers, leave alone preservice teachers (Fong, Percy, & Woodruff, 2004). It, therefore, becomes essential to guide preservice teachers in these activities.
This study compared the effects of different scaffolding questions on preservice teachers' understanding of formative assessment as they analyzed contrasting video cases. The study was conducted across 3 sessions and implemented a pretest-posttest four-group research design. 81 undergraduates from a teacher-education course were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 scaffolding conditions, cognitive questions, metacognitive questions, combination questions, and a control group. The condition-specific questions were designed to scaffold the participants as they analyzed contrasting video cases. The target concept was formative assessment and understanding was measured by declarative knowledge measures: factual recall and conceptual comprehension, and case-analysis measures: case-interpretations and case-redesigns.
All participants showed significant improvements from pretest to posttest on declarative knowledge and case-interpretation skills. There was however a significant decline in case-redesign skills. Interaction effect between condition and time was significant for case-interpretation skills with significant pre-post improvements for the metacognitive-questions and combination-questions group. A-priori planned contrasts revealed that the cognitive-questions group outperformed the metacognitive-questions group on declarative knowledge whereas the metacognitive-questions group outperformed the cognitive-questions group on case-interpretation. The metacognitive-questions group also outperformed the cognitive-questions group on a transfer case-interpretation task. The results suggest practical implications for use of specific scaffolding questions that are effective in improving conceptual knowledge and applied case-interpretation skills during contrasting video case analysis activities.
Nagarajan, A. Scaffolding preservice teachers' learning in contrasting video case analysis activities. Ph.D. thesis, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick.
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