Computer-assisted instruction in elementary physical education
Mary Ann Guinn Carr, Middle Tennessee State University, United States
Middle Tennessee State University . Awarded
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) when presenting instruction related to anatomy of the human body. The experimental design was three-dimensional with dimensions of gender (male and female), grade (third, fourth, and fifth), method of instruction (computer-assisted and traditional), and length of knowledge recall (immediate, one-day, and six-week). Participants were elementary students in grades three, four, and five attending regular physical education classes. A class at each grade level was designated the traditional group (TRAD) and instructed with conventional methods. The other class was termed the computer-assisted group (CAI) and provided instruction via CD-ROM software, The Ultimate Human Body 2.0. Instructional material was presented on the anatomy of the human body related to the skeletal, heart, muscular, and circulatory systems. Testing was conducted at the conclusion of each unit (immediate recall), one day after instruction (one-day recall) and a composite test completed after six weeks.
A general linear model with repeated measures was used to determine if significant difference existed among the independent variables of instruction, grade, or gender and the dependent variables of immediate and one-day recall of knowledge for the four systems. The between-subjects effects for each group were compared with the factors of type of instruction, grade, and gender. The .05 level of probability was considered significant. The results of analysis of variance with the dependent variable of instruction were for skeletal (F = 12.54, p = .001), for muscular (F = 2.61, p = 0.11), for circulatory (F = 30.70, p = 0.00) and for the heart (F = 24.14, p = 0.00). Significant differences were obtained between computer-assisted instruction and traditional instruction for immediate recall of information for all grades. The retention of knowledge after one day and after six weeks was not significantly different for the two methods of instruction. No significant difference was obtained between genders for the recall of knowledge.
In conclusion, participants who received computer-assisted instruction displayed a greater immediate recall of knowledge than participants who received traditional instruction. The recall of knowledge after one day and after six weeks was comparable for both methods of instruction.
Carr, M.A.G. Computer-assisted instruction in elementary physical education. Ph.D. thesis, Middle Tennessee State University.
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