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Developing an Instrument to Assess Student Readiness for Online Learning: A Validation Study

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Distance Education Volume 32, Number 1, ISSN 0158-7919


Given the continued growth in online learning as well as reports of high attrition rates in it, understanding student readiness for online learning is necessary. Over the years several surveys have been developed to assess student readiness as a predictor of success in online programs; however, a review of the literature yielded limited results of their translation and criterion-referenced validity. The researchers of this article sought to develop a more rigorous survey instrument for students to self-assess readiness for online learning. The authors report on findings from a three-phase study during which the instrument was developed, evaluated, and validated. Through the process of validation, the researchers systematically engaged in an iterative process to refine the instrument, which resulted in not only a more rigorous instrument but one that more clearly defines ready and situates it within the literature on learner characteristics, digital divide, and information and communications technology (ICT) engagement. (Contains 8 tables and 1 note.)


Dray, B.J., Lowenthal, P.R., Miszkiewicz, M.J., Ruiz-Primo, M.A. & Marczynski, K. (2011). Developing an Instrument to Assess Student Readiness for Online Learning: A Validation Study. Distance Education, 32(1), 29-47. Retrieved October 19, 2019 from .

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