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Gender-Specific Perceptions of Four Dimensions of the Work/Family Interaction

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Journal of Career Assessment Volume 17, Number 4, ISSN 1069-0727


The aim of this study was twofold. The first intention was to examine the factorial validity of a work/family interaction in terms of the direction of influence (work-to-family vs. family-to-work) and type of effect (conflict vs. facilitation). Second, gender differences along these four dimensions of work/family interaction were explored. Data were obtained from eight different occupational groups in Norway: lawyers, physicians, nurses, teachers, church ministers, bus drivers, and people working in advertising and information technology (IT; N = 3,313). Multigroup analysis indicated that the hypothesized four-factor model clearly has a better fit than the alternative one-factor and two-factor models. Latent mean comparisons revealed significant gender differences along all the dimensions. Women reported more conflict and facilitation in both directions compared to men. Although there were some occupational differences, this was indicative of a more fluid boundary between work and family among women. The findings are discussed in an identity perspective. (Contains 1 figure and 3 tables.)


Innstrand, S.T., Langballe, E.M., Falkum, E., Espnes, G.A. & Aasland, O.G. (2009). Gender-Specific Perceptions of Four Dimensions of the Work/Family Interaction. Journal of Career Assessment, 17(4), 402-416. Retrieved January 30, 2023 from .

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