Three Ways to Be Happy: Pleasure, Engagement, and Meaning--Findings from Australian and US Samples
Social Indicators Research Volume 90, Number 2, ISSN 0303-8300
This study examined the contributions of orientations to happiness (pleasure, engagement and meaning) to subjective well-being. A sample of 12,622 adults from the United States completed on-line surveys measuring orientations to happiness, positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction. A sample of 332 adults from Australia also completed these surveys as well as a measure of the big five factor personality traits. Hierarchical regressions generally supported the hypothesis that the three orientations to happiness predict subjective well-being (satisfaction with life, positive affect and negative affect) beyond sociodemographic variables and personality. Meaning and engagement explained the greatest variance in all three components of subjective well-being. Overall, these findings support the importance of a eudaimonic approach in addition to the hedonic approach to achieving happiness. Moreover, findings were relatively consistent in both the Australian and US samples.
Vella-Brodrick, D.A., Park, N. & Peterson, C. (2009). Three Ways to Be Happy: Pleasure, Engagement, and Meaning--Findings from Australian and US Samples. Social Indicators Research, 90(2), 165-179.