You are here:

A Taxonomy of Learning Through Asynchronous Discussion Article

, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, United States

Journal of Interactive Learning Research Volume 16, Number 2, ISSN 1093-023X Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Waynesville, NC

Abstract

This article presents a five-tiered taxonomy that describes the nature of participation in, and learning through, asynchronous discussion. The taxonomy is framed by a constructivist view of asynchronous discussion. The five tiers of the taxonomy include the following: (a) passive participation, (b) developmental participation, (c) generative participation, (d) dialogical participation, and (e) metacognitive participation. This article concludes with implications for pedagogy and suggestions for the direction of future theoretical and empirical research.

Citation

Knowlton, D.S. (2005). A Taxonomy of Learning Through Asynchronous Discussion. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 16(2), 155-177. Norfolk, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved July 22, 2018 from .

Keywords

View References & Citations Map

References

  1. Adams, D.M., & Hamm, M.E. (1990). Cooperative learning: Critical thinking and collaboration across the curriculum. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Press.
  2. Bandura, A. (1986). The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 4(3), 359-373.
  3. Bannan-Ritland, B. (2002). Computer-mediated communication, elearning, and interactivity: A
  4. Berge, Z.L. (1999). Interaction in post-secondary web-based learning. Educational Technology, 39(1), 5-11.
  5. Berge, Z.L. (2002). Active, interactive, and reflective elearning. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 3(2), 181-190.
  6. Brown, A. (1997). Designing for learning: What are the essential features of an effective online course? Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 13(2), 115-126.
  7. Dede, C. (2004). If design-based research is the answer, what is the question? A commentary on Collins, Joseph, and Bielaczyc; diSessa and Cobb; and Fishman, Marx, Blumenthal, Krajcik, and Soloway in the JLS special issue on design-based research. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13(1), 105-114.
  8. DeHaan, M. (2002). Distributed cognition and the shared knowledge model of the Mazahua: A cultural approach. The Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 13(1/2), 31-50.
  9. DeVries, E., Lund, K., & Baker, M. (2002). Computer-mediated epistemic dialogue: Explanation and argumentation as vehicles for understanding scientific notions. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 11(1), 63-103.
  10. DiSessa, A.A., & Cobb, P. (2004). Ontological innovation and the role of theory in design experiments. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13(1), 77-103.
  11. Dunlosky, J. (1998). Epilogue: Linking metacognitive theory to education. In D.J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A.C. Graesser (Eds.), Metacognition in educational theory and practice (pp. 367381). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  12. Essex, C., & Cagiltay, K. (2001). Evaluating an online course: Feedback from “distressed" students. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 2(3), 233-240.
  13. Fulwiler, T. (1986). The argument for writing across the curriculum. In A. Young & T. Fulwiler (Eds.). Writing across disciplines: Research into practice (pp. 21-32). Portsmouth, UK: Boynton/Cook.
  14. Gardner, H., & Hatch, T. (1989). Multiple intelligences go to school: Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences. Educational Researcher, 15(8), 4-9.
  15. Goodyear, P., Salmon, G., Spector, J. M., Steeples, C., & Tickner, S. (2001). Competencies for online teaching: A special report. Educational Technology Research and Development, 49(1), 65-72.
  16. Graham, M. & Scarborough, H. (1999). Computer mediated communication and collaborative learning in an undergraduate distance education environment. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 15(1), 20-46.
  17. Hacker, D.J. (1998). Definitions and empirical foundations. In D.J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A.C. Graesser (Eds.), Metacognition in educational theory and practice (pp. 1-24). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  18. Hara, N., & Kling, R. (2001). Students’ distress with a web-based distance education course: An ethnographic study of participants' experiences. Information, Communication & Society 3(4), 557-579. Retrieved January 12, 2002, from http://www.slis.indiana.edu/CSI/Wp/wp0001B.html
  19. Jonassen, D.H. (1991). Objectivism versus constructivism: Do we need a new philosophica paradigm? Journal of Educational Research, 39(3), 5-14.
  20. Jonassen, D.H. (2001). Toward a design theory of problem solving. Educational Technology
  21. Jonassen, D.H. (2002). Engaging and supporting problem solving in online learning. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 3(1), 1-13.
  22. Jonassen, D.H., & Kwon, H.I. (2001). Communication patterns in computer mediated versus face-to-face problem solving. Educational Technology Research and Development, 49(1), 35-52.
  23. Jonassen, D.H., Davidson, M., Collins, M., Campbell, J., & Haag, B. (1995). Constructivism and computer-mediated communication in distance education. The American Journal of Distance Education, 9(2), 7-26.
  24. Kelly, A.E. (2004). Design research in education: Yes, but is it methodological? Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13(1), 115-128.
  25. Knowlton, D.S. (2000). A theoretical framework for the online classroom: A defense and delineation of a student-centered pedagogy. In R.E. Weiss, D.S. Knowlton, & B.W. Speck (Eds.), Principles of effective teaching in the online classroom, (pp.5-14). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  26. Knowlton, D.S. (2003a). Evaluating college students' efforts in asynchronous discussion: A systematic process. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 4(1), 31-41.
  27. Knowlton, D.S. (2003b). Preparing students for educated living: Virtues of problem-based
  28. Knowlton, D.S., Eschmann, A., Fish, N., Heffren, B., & Voss, H. (2004). Processes and impact of journal writing in a graduate-level theory course: Students’ experiences and reflections. Teaching & Learning: The Journal of Natural Inquiry and Reflective Practice, 18(2), 40-53. Retrieved May 26, 2004, from http://www.und.nodak.edu/dept/ehd/journal/
  29. Knowlton, D.S., Knowlton, H.M., & Davis, C. (2000). The whys and hows of online discussions. Syllabus: New Directions in Educational Technology, 13(10), 54-58.
  30. Kolb, D.A., & Fry, R. (1975). Toward an applied theory of prior learning. In G. Cooper (Ed.). Theories of group processes, (pp. 33-57). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  31. Kuhn, D. (1999). A developmental model of critical thinking. Educational Researcher, 28(2), 16-25. Land, S.M. (2000). Cognitive requirements for learning with open-ended learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 48(3), 61-78. Knowlton
  32. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
  33. Leinon, P., Järvelä, S., & Lipponen, L. (2003). Individual students’ interpretations of their contribution to the computer-mediated discussions. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 14(1), 99-122.
  34. Lewis, D.C., Treves, J.A., & Shaindlin, A.B. (1997). Making sense of academic cyberspace: Case study of an electronic classroom. College Teaching, 45(3), 96-100.
  35. Liu, Y., & Ginther, D. (1999). Cognitive styles and distance education. The Journal of Distance Learning Administration [On-line], 2(3). Retrieved October 10, 2001, from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/liu23.html.
  36. Lindemann, E. (1995). A rhetoric for writing teachers (3rd ed). New York: Oxford University Press. McMillan, D.W. (1996). Sense of community. Journal of Community Psychology, 24(4), 315-325. Merryfield, M.M. (2001). The paradoxes of teaching a multicultural education course online. Journal of Teacher Education, 52(4), 283-299.
  37. Miller, S.M., & Miller, K.L. (1999). Using instructional theory to facilitate communication in
  38. Moller, L. (1998). Designing communities of participants for asynchronous distance education. Educational Technology Research & Development, 46(4), 115-122. Morrison, G.M., & Guenther, P.F.
  39. Pena-Shaff, J., Martin, W., & Gay, G. (2001). An epistemological framework for analyzing student interactions in computer-mediated communication environments. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 12(1), 41-68. Prestera, G.E., & Moller, L.A.
  40. Rovai, A.P. (2001). Building classroom community at a distance: A case study. Educational Technology Research and Development, 49(4), 33-48.
  41. Salmon, G. (2000). E-moderating: The key to teaching and learning online. London: Kogan Page. Sitko, B.M. (1998). Knowing how to write: Metacognition and writing instruction. In D.J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A.C. Graesser (Eds.), Metacognition in educational theory and practice, (pp. 93-116). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  42. Speck, B.W. (1998). The teacher’s role in the pluralistic classroom. Perspectives, 28(1), 19-43. Tam, M.
  43. Weedman, J. (1999). Conversation and community: The potential of electronic conferences for creating intellectual proximity in distributed learning environments. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 50(10), 907-928.
  44. Wegerif, R. (2002). Walking or thinking? Images of thinking and learning to think in the classroom. The Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 13(1/2), 51-70.
  45. Weiss, R. E. (2000). Humanizing the online classroom. In R.E. Weiss, D.S. Knowlton, & B.W. Speck (Eds.), Principles of effective teaching in the online classroom, (pp.47-52). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  46. Wittrock, M.C. (1989). Generative processes of comprehension. Educational Psychologist, 24, 345-376.
  47. Wittrock, M.C., & Alesandrini, K. (1990). Generation of summaries and analogies and analytic and holistic abilities. American Educational Research Journal, 27(3), 489-502.

These references have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake in the references above, please contact info@learntechlib.org.