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Understanding Process and Affective Factors in Small Group versus Individual Learning with Technology

Journal of Educational Computing Research Volume 31, Number 4, ISSN 0735-6331


Based on 198 independent findings from 71 studies with experimental or statistical controls, the results of this meta-analysis indicate that, on average, students learning with computers in small groups attempted a greater amount of task (d + = +0.15), used more learning strategies (d + = +0.36), had more positive attitude toward small group learning (d + = +0.54), but needed more task completion time (d + = -0.21) as compared to students learning with computers individually. No significant difference was found on student attitude toward instruction whether they learned in small groups or individually. However, effect sizes varied significantly, ranging from extremely positive to extremely negative in each of the outcomes analyzed. Significant predictors concerning technology and task characteristics included type of programs, instructional control, feedback, and task structure. Significant predictors concerning grouping and learner characteristics included group learning strategy, group work experience, and group size.


Lou, Y. (2004). Understanding Process and Affective Factors in Small Group versus Individual Learning with Technology. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 31(4), 337-369. Retrieved June 17, 2019 from .

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