Assets, economic opportunity and toxic stress: A framework for understanding child and educational outcomes
Economics of Education Review Volume 33, Number 1, ISSN 0272-7757 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
A large body of evidence indicates that socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong predictor of school achievement, college graduation and child outcomes in general. Better developmental and health outcomes are strongly associated with family assets, income and education. We introduce a model incorporating a range of theoretical and empirical literature about the relationships between a household's socio-economic position, household interactions, and child educational outcomes. The intention is to illustrate how these frequently cited factors are exacerbated and aligned by stress or difficult environments which cause long-term challenges for children in high-risk circumstances. Finally, we modify the model to illustrate the dynamic nature of these relationships, highlighting how the developmental trajectory of a child who lives with toxic stress might differ from a comparable child with social supports in a situation of low or tolerable stress.
Williams Shanks, T.R. & Robinson, C. (2013). Assets, economic opportunity and toxic stress: A framework for understanding child and educational outcomes. Economics of Education Review, 33(1), 154-170. Elsevier Ltd.