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Virtual learning environment engagement and learning outcomes at a ‘bricks-and-mortar’ university

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Computers & Education Volume 126, Number 1, ISSN 0360-1315 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


In this study, we analyse the relationship between engagement in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and module grades at a ‘bricks-and-mortar’ university in the United Kingdom. We measure VLE activity for students enrolled in 38 different credit-bearing modules, each of which are compulsory components of six degree programmes. Overall we find that high VLE activity is associated with high grades, but low activity does not necessarily imply low grades. Analysis of individual modules shows a wide range of relationships between the two quantities. Grouping module-level relationships by programme suggests that science-based subjects have a higher dependency on VLE activity. Considering learning design (LD), we find that VLE usage is more important in modules that adopt an instruction-based learning style. We also test the predictive power of VLE usage in determining grades, again finding variation between degree programmes and potential for predicting a student's final grade weeks in advance of assessment. Our findings suggest that student engagement with learning at a bricks-and-mortar university is in general hard to determine by VLE usage alone, due to the predominance of other “offline” learning activities, but that VLE usage can nonetheless help to predict performance for some disciplines.


Boulton, C.A., Kent, C. & Williams, H.T.P. (2018). Virtual learning environment engagement and learning outcomes at a ‘bricks-and-mortar’ university. Computers & Education, 126(1), 129-142. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved May 30, 2020 from .

This record was imported from Computers & Education on January 29, 2019. Computers & Education is a publication of Elsevier.

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